10th Std Social Science Solution in English | Lesson.7 Anti-Colonial Movements and the Birth of Nationalism

Lesson.7 Anti-Colonial Movements and the Birth of Nationalism

10th Standard Social Science Solution - Anti-Colonial Movements and the Birth of Nationalism

Lesson.7 Anti-Colonial Movements and the Birth of Nationalism

I. Choose the Correct Answer:

1. Which one of the following was launched by Haji Shariatullah in 1818 in East Bengal?

  1. Wahhabi Rebellion
  2. Farazi Movement
  3. Tribal uprising
    Kol Revolt

Ans : Farasi Movement

2. Who declared that “Land belongs to God” and collecting rent or tax on it was against divine law?

  1. Titu Mir
  2. Sidhu
  3. Dudu Mian
  4. Shariatullah

Ans : Dadu Mian

3. Who were driven out of their homeland during the process of creation of Zamins under Permanent Settlement?

  1. Santhals
  2. Titu Mir
  3. Munda
  4. Kol

Ans : Santhals

4. Find out the militant nationalist from the following.

  1. Dadabhai Naoroji
  2. Justice Govind Ranade
  3. Bipin Chandra pal
  4. Romesh Chandra

Ans : Bipin Chandra pal

5. When did the Partition of Bengal come into effect?

  1. 19 June 1905
  2. 18 July 1906
  3. 19 August 1907
  4. 16 October 1905

Ans : 16 October 1905

6. What was the context in which the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act was passed?

  1. Kol Revolt
  2. Indigo Revolt
  3. Munda Rebellion
  4. Deccan Riots

Ans: c) Munda Rebellion

7. Who set up the first Home Rule League in April 1916?

  1. Annie Basant
  2. Bipin Chandra Pal
  3. Lala Lajpat Rai
  4. Tilak

Ans : Tilak

8. Who drew the attention of the British to the suffering of Indigo cultivation through his play Nil darpan?

  1. Dina Bandhu Mitra
  2. Romesh Chandra Dutt
  3. Dadabhai Naoroji
  4. Birsa Munda

Ans : Dina Bandhu Mitra

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. ________ was an anti–imperial and anti-landlord movement which originated in and around 1827.

Ans : Wahhabi Rebellion

2. The major tribal revolt which took place in Chotanagpur region was ________.

Ans : Kol Revolt

3. The ________ Act, restricted the entry of non-tribal people into the tribal land.

Ans : Chotanagpur Tenancy

4. Chota Nagpur Act was passed in the year ________.

Ans : 1908

5. W.C. Bannerjee was elected the president of Indian National Congress in the year ________.

Ans : 1885

III. Choose the Correct Statement

1. (i) The Company received 22.5 million from Mir Jafar and invested it to propel the industrial revolution in Britain.

(ii) Kols organized an insurrection in 1831-1832, which was directed against government officers and moneylenders.

(iii) In 1855, two Santhal brothers, Sidhu and Kanu, led the Santhal Rebellion.

(iv) In 1879, an Act was passed to regulate the territories occupied by the Santhals.

  1. (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct
  2. (ii) and (iii) are correct
  3. (iii) and (iv) are correct
  4. (i) and (iv) are correct

Ans : i), ii) and iii) are correct

2. (i) One of the most significant contributions of the early Indian Nationalists was the formulation of an economic critique of colonialism.

(ii) The early Congress leaders stated that the religious exploitation in India was the primary reason for the growing poverty.

(iii) One of the goals of the moderate Congress leaders was to achieve Swaraj or selfrule.

(iv) The objective of Partition of Bengal was to curtail the Bengali influence and weaken the nationalist movement.

  1. (i) and (iii) are correct
  2. (i), (iii), and (iv) are correct
  3. (ii) and (iii) are correct
  4. (iii) and (iv) are correct

Ans : i), iii) and iv) are correct

3. Assersion (A) : Under colonial rule, for the first time in Indian history, government claimed a direct proprietary right over forests.

Reason (R) : Planters used intimidation and violence to compel farmers to grow indigo.

  1. Both (A) and (R) are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A
  2. Both (A) and (R) are wrong
  3. Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
  4. (A) is wrong and (R) is correct

Ans : Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the not correct explanation of (A)

4. Assersion (A) : The Revolt of 1857 was brutally suppressed by the British army.

Reason (R) : The failure of the rebellion was due to the absence of Central authority.

  1. Both (A) and (R) are wrong
  2. (A) is wrong and (R) is correct
  3. Both (A) and (R) are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
  4. Both (A) and (R) are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of A

Ans : Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

IV. Match the following:

1. Wahhabi RebellionLucknow
2. Munda RebellionPeshwa Baji Rao II
3. Begum Hazarat MahalTitu Mir
4. Kunwar SinghRanchi
5. Nana SahibBihar
Ans: 1 – C, 2 – D, 3 – A, 4 – E, 5 – B

V. Answer the following in brief:

1. How are the peasant uprisings in British India classified ?

  • Restorative rebellions
  • Social Banditry
  • Religious Movements
  • Mass Insurrection

2. Name the territories annexed by the British under the Doctrine of Lapse.

  • Satara
  • Parts of the Punjab
  • Sambalpur
  • Jhansi and Nagpur.

3. What do you mean by drain of wealth ?

  • India was economically subjugated and transformed into a supplier of raw material to the British industries.
  • Tt became a market to dump English manufactures and for the investment of British capital.
  • The colonial economy was a continuous transfer of resources from India to Britain without any favourable returns back to India.
  • This is called “the drain of wealth”

4. Highlight the objectives of Home Rule Movement.

  • To attain self – government within the British Empire by using constitutional means.
  • To obtain the status of dominion a political position accorded later to Australia, Canada, South Africa and New Zealand.
  • To use non- violent constitutional methods to achieve their goals.

7. Summarise the essence of Lucknow Pact.

  • Under the Lucknow Pact (1916) the Congress and the Muslim League agreed that there should be self – government in India as soon as possible.
  • In return, the congress leadership accepted the concept of separate electorate for Muslims.

IV. Answer in detail:

1. Discuss the causes and consequences of the Revolt of 1857?


a) Annexation policy of British India

In the 1840s and 1850s more territories were annexed through two major policies.

The Doctrine of Paramountcy

  • British claimed themselves as paramount, exercising supreme authority.
  • New territories were annexed on the grounds that the native rulers were corrupt and inept.

The Doctrine of Lapse :

  • If a native ruler failed to produce a biological male heir to the throne, the territory was to ‘lapse’ into British India upon the death of the ruler.
  • Satara, Sambalpur, parts of the Punjab, Jhansi and Nagpur were annexed by the British through this policy.

b) Insensitivity to Indian cultural sentiments

  • In 1806 the sepoys at Vellore mutinied against the new dress code, which prohibited Indians from wearing religious marks on their foreheads and having whiskers on their chin. They had to replace their turbans with a round hat.
  • It was feared that the dress code was part of their effort to convert soldiers to Christianity
  • Similarly in 1824, the sepoys at Barrackpur near Calcutta refused to go to Burma by sea since crossing the sea meant the loss of their caste.
  • The sepoys were also upset with discrimination in salary and promotion.
  • Indian sepoys were paid much less than their European counterparts.
  • They felt humiliated and racially abused by their seniors.

c) Immediate cause:

  • The immediate cause was the introduction of greased cartridges supplied to the Enfield rifile.
  • It was suspected that the cartridges had been greased with the fat of the pig and cow.
  • Cow is sacred to the Hindus and the pork is forbidden to the Muslims. So the soldiers
    refused to use the cartridges.

d) Consequences:

  • By the Government of India Act of 1858, the rule of East India Company came to an end in India. India came under the direct control of the Crown.
  • Queen Victoria’s Proclamation promised that the British would not interfere in traditional institutions and religious matters.
  • Tt was promised that Indians would be absorbed in government services.
  • Two significant changes were made in the structure of the Indian army.
  • The number of Indians was significantly reduced
  • Indians were restrained from holding important ranks and position.

2. How did the people of Bengal respond to the Partition of Bengal (1905)?

Partition of Bengal

  • Partition of Bengal in 1905 was the most unpopular of all.
  • The partition led to wide spread protests all across India, starting a new phase of the Indian national movement.
  • The idea of partition was devised to suppress the political activities against the British rule in Bengal by creating a Hindu-Muslim divide.
  • Instead of dividing the Bengali people along the religious line the partition united them.

Anti – partition movement

  • The leaders of both the groups extremist and moderate —were critical of partition.
  • Initially the objective of the anti-partition campaign was limited to changing the public opinion in England.
  • So they protested through prayers, press campaigns, petitions and public meetings.
  • However, despite widespread protest, partition of Bengal was announced on 19 July 1905.
  • The boycott of British goods was one such method.
  • Swadeshi movement was started. It aimed at the cancellation of partition of Bengal.
  • The moderates were very much against utilising the campaign to start a full — fledged passive resistance.
  • But the militant nationalists were in favour of extending the movement beyond Bengal and to initiate a full – scale mass struggle.
  • The day Bengal was officially partitioned, 16 Oct. 1905 was declared as a day of mourning.
  • Thousands of people took bath in the Ganga and marched on the streets of Calcutta singing ‘Bande Mataram’


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