Lesson.25 Food Security and Nutrition
Lesson.25 Food Security and Nutrition
I. Choose the Correct Answer:
1. ________ of food is physical availability of food stocks in desired quantities, which is a function of domestic production, changes in stocks and imports.
- Availability of food
- Access to food
- Absorption of food
Ans : Availability of food
2. Buffer stock is the stock of food grains, namely wheat and rice, procured by the government through the ________.
- Consumer Cooperatives
Ans : FCI
3. Which is correct?
|i) HYV–High Yielding Varieties
|ii) MSP–Minimum Support Price
|iii) PDS–Public Distribution System
|iv) FCI–Food Corporation of India
- i and ii are correct
- iii and iv are correct
- ii and iii are correct
- all are correct
Ans : All are correct
4. ________ extended assistance through its Public Law 480.
- United States of America
Ans : United States of America
5. ________ revolution was born in India paving way for self sufficiency in food grain production.
- Blue Revolution
- White Revolution
- Green Revolution
- Grey Revolution
Ans : Green Revolution
6. ________ is the only state in India to adopt universal PDS.
- Andhra Pradesh
- Tamil Nadu
Ans : Tamil Nadu
7. ________ is the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
Ans : Nutrition
II. Fill in the blanks:
1. ________ is an important indicator of nutrition deficiency.
Ans : Under weight
2. In the year ________ National Food Security Act was passed by the Indian Parliament.
Ans : 2013
3. ________ play an important role in the supply of quality goods at responsible rates to common people.
Ans : Consumer co-operatives
III. Match the following:
|1. Consumer cooperatives
|2. Public Distribution System
|least poor region
|4. National Food Security Act
|supply of quality goods
|United Nations Development Programme
|Ans: 1 – D, 2 – A, 3 -E, 4 – B, 5 – C
IV. Assertion and Reason:
1. Assertion (A) : Purchasing power increases, price decreases and vice versa.
Reason (R) : The production of goods decline, the price of goods increases and then the purchasing power is affected.
- A is correct, R is false
- Both A and R are false statements
- A is correct but R is not a correct explanation
- A is correct, R is the correct explanation of A
Ans : A is correct but R is the correct expiation of A
V. Answer in Short:
1. Define food security according to FAO.
“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.”
2. What are the basic three components of of food and nutrition security?
The three basic components of food and nutrition security are –
- Availability of food
- Access to food
3. What is the role of FCI in Green Revolution?
- The FCI purchases wheat and rice from the farmers in states where there is surplus production.
- The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their crops. This price is called Minimum Support Price (MSP).
- The MSP is declared by the government every year before the sowing season to provide incentives to farmers for raising the production of these crops.
- The purchased food grains are stored in granaries.
- Buffer stock is done to distribute food grains in the deficit areas and among the poorer strata of the society at a price lower than the market price also known as the Issue Price.
- This also helps resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during the periods of calamity.
4. What are the effects of Green Revolution?
- The main benefit of Green Revolution was the increase in the production of food grains.
- There was a drastic reduction in the import of food grains due to Green Revolution.
- It helped India to establish as one of the world’s biggest agricultural producers.
- The crop area under high yielding varieties of wheat and rice grew considerably during the Green Revolution.
- It created plenty of jobs not only for agricultural workers but also industrial workers by creating related facilities.
5. Write some name of the nutrition programmes in Tamil Nadu.
- Some of the Nutrition Programmes followed in Tamil Nadu arez Purachi Thalaivar M.G.R. Nutrition Meal Programme
- National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education
- Pradhan Manthri Gramodaya Yojana Scheme (PMGYS
- Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Programme
- Mid-Day Meal Programme
VI. Answer in detail:
1. Elucidate why the Green Revolution was born.
The Green Revolution in India refers to a period when Indian agriculture was converted in to industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology. It led to an increase in food grain production.
Causes of Green Revolution:
- The main cause for the Green Revolution is the growth of population in India.
- When the population increased, there was a scarcity of food grains in India. India had to plead for food grains from richer countries at concessional rates.
- Better irrigation facilities are responsible for green revolution. In 1965-66, 0nly 22 lakh hectares had irrigation facilities. It increased to 76 lakh hectares in 2002-03.
- Advanced Machineries such as tractors, harvesting combines, tube wells and pumping sets and threshers, etc helped the farmers to improve agriculture.
- The use of chemical fertilizers has increased the production of food grains to large extent.
- The HYV (High Yielding Varities) seeds have played a major role in increasing agriculture production.
- There was no arrangement to protect the plants against disease in previous years. Now, it is changed.
- Proper arrangement of irrigation enables the farmer to grow more than one crop in a year. Due to multiple cropping, productions food grains have increased tremendously.
- Above all, the government has made many efforts for agricultural development. During Eight Five Year Plan (1992-97), Government has spent Rs. 590 crore on agricultural development.
- Green Revolution was born in the country to achieve self-sufficiency in food grain production.
2. Explain Minimum Support Price.
- Minimum Support Price is a price fixed by an expert group for a particular crop by considering various costs involved in the cultivation of that crop.
- After announcing the MSP, the State will open procurement centres in places where these crops are widely grown. However, the farmers are free to sell in the open market if they get a better price for their crop produce.
- On the other hand, if the open market price is lower than the MSP, the farmers would get an assured price (the MSP) by selling their produce to the FCI.
- Thus, with the implementation of MSP farmers are certain about the price they would get at the end of the crop season.
- Further, farmers also get insulated against any price crash during the harvest season.
3. Elaborate the Public Distribution System.
- The increase in food grain production need not result in increase in access to food for all. So, the government took steps to distribute food grains at subsidised rates through the Public Distribution System (PDS).
- The nature, scope and functioning of PDS varies from state to state. Tamil Nadu has adopted an ‘Universal’ PDS, the rest of the states in India had a ‘Targeted’ PDS.
- Under universal PDS all the family ration card holders are entitled to the supplies from PDS. In the targeted PDS, the beneficiaries are identified based on certain criteria and given their entitlements, leaving out the rest.
- Both the Union and the State governments subsidised the supplies distributed through PDS. The level and quantum of subsidy also varied across states.
- Subsequently, the National Food Security Act (NFSA) was passed by the Indian parliament in 2013. The NFSA covers 50% of urban households and 75% of the rural households.
- These households are known as priority households identified based on a set of criteria. Priority households of this country now have the right to food supplied through PDS.
- The Union government supplies rice at the rate of ` 3 per kg, wheat at the rate of 2 per kg, and millets at the rate of ` 1 per kg under NFSA.
4. What are the factors affecting the purchasing power and explain them.
Purchasing power is the value of a currency expressed in terms of the amount of goods or services that one unit of money can buy. Price increases purchasing power declines and vice versa. The factors that affect the Purchasing Power are
i) Over population
- The population growth rate in India is high. Large population leads to increasing demand, but supply was not equal to the demand.
- So, the normal price level will be going an higher. Automatically, it affect purchasing power especially in rural population.
ii) Increasing prices of essential goods
- There is a steady increase in the prices of essential goods.
- The continuous rises in the prices erodes the purchasing power and adversely affect the poor people.
- During 2015-16 an average rate of 2% flood inflation, the prices of pulses rose by
iii) Demand for goods
When demand for goods increases, the price of goods increases then the purchasing power is affected.
iv) Price of goods affect the value of currency
When the price increases the purchasing power decreases and finally the value of currency decreases and vice versa.
v) Production and supply of goods
The production and supply of goods decline, the price of goods increases, then the purchasing power is affected.
vi) Poverty and inequality
- There exists a huge economic disparity in the Indian economy. The proportion of income and assets owned by top 10% of Indian goes on increasing. This has led to an increase in the poverty level in the society.
- Generally purchasing power is affected by poverty and unequal distribution of wealth also.
- Purchasing power affects every aspect of economics from consumers buying goods to investors and stock prices to a country’s economic prosperity.
5. What are the main objectivies of the new Agricultural Policy?
The important objectives of the New Agricultural Policy are –
i) Raising the productivity of inputs
One of the important objectives of India’s agricultural policy is to improve the productivity of inputs like, HYV seeds, fertilisers, pesticides, irrigation projects etc.
ii) Raising value-added per hectare
Agricultural policy is to increase per hectare value-added rather than raising physical output by raising the productivity of agriculture in general and productivity of small and marginal holding in particular.
iii) Protecting the interests of poor farmers
Agricultural policy is proposed to protect the interests of poor and marginal farmers by abolishing intermediaries. It can be achieved through land reforms, expanding institutional credit support to poor farmers etc.
iv) Modernising agricultural sector
The policy support includes the introduction of modern technology in agricultural operations and application of improved agricultural inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers etc.
v) Environmental degradation
Agricultural policy of India has set another objective to check environmental degradation of natural base of Indian agriculture.
vi) Removing bureaucratic obstacles
The policy has set another objective to remove bureaucratic obstacles on the farmers’ co-operative societies and self-help institutions so that they can work independently
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