10th Std Social Science Solution in English | Lesson.16 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu

Lesson.16 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu

10th Standard Social Science Solution - Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu

Lesson.16 Physical Geography of Tamil Nadu

I. Choose the Correct Answer:

1. The latitudinal extent of Tamil Nadu is

  1. 8°5′N to 13°35′N
  2. 8°5′S to 13°35′S
  3. 8°0′N to 13°5′N
  4. 8°0′S to 13°05′S

Ans : 8°5′N to 13°35′N

2. The longitudinal extent of Tamil Nadu is

  1. 76°18′ E to 80°20′E
  2. 76°18′ W to 80°20′W
  3. 86°18′ E to 10°20′E
  4. 86°18′ W to 10°20′W

Ans : 76°18′ E to 80°20′E

3. The highest peak in Tamil Nadu is

  1. Anaimudi
  2. Doddabetta
  3. Mahendragiri
  4. Servarayan

Ans : Doddabetta

4. Which of the following passes is not located in the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu?

  1. Palghat
  2. Shencottah
  3. Bhorghat
  4. Achankoil

Ans : Bhorghat

5. Which one of the following rivers is flow into the Arabian Sea?

  1. Periyar
  2. Cauvery
  3. Chittar
  4. Bhavani

Ans : Cauvery

6. The district with largest mangrove forest cover in Tamil Nadu is

  1. Ramanathapuram
  2. Nagapattinam
  3. Cuddalore
  4. Theni

Ans : Cuddalore

7. Retreating monsoon wind picks up moisture from

  1. Arabian sea
  2. Bay of Bengal
  3. Indian Ocean
  4. Timor sea

Ans : Bay of Bengal

8. Which of the following district is affected by sand dunes to a large extent?

  1. Theni
  2. Madurai
  3. Thanjavur
  4. Ramanathapuram

Ans : Ramanathapuram

9. The district which has the largest forest cover in Tamil Nadu is

  1. Dharmapuri
  2. Vellore
  3. Dindigul
  4. Erode

Ans : Dharmapuri

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. The plateau which lies between the Nilgiris and Dharmapuri districts is ________.

Ans : Coimbatore Plageau

2. ________ is the highest peak in the southern most part of the Eastern Ghats.

Ans : Solaikaradu

3. The riverine Island of Srirangam is located between ________ and ________ branches of cauvery.

Ans : Cauvery and Kollidam

4. ________ is the Tamil Nadu state animal.

Ans : Tahr goat

III. Match the following:

1. Winter seasonPre-monsoon
2. Summer seasonJune to September
3. Southwest monsoonMarch to May
4. North east monsoonJanuary and February
5. Mango ShowerOctober to December
Ans : 1 – D, 2 – C, 3 – B, 4 – E, 5 – A

IV. Assertion type question

1. Assertion (A) : Tamil Nadu does not receive much rainfall from southwest monsoon.

Reason (R) : It is situated in the rain shadow area of the Western Ghats.

  1. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A).
  2. Both (A) and (R) are true but, (R) does not explain (A).
  3. (A) is true but, (R) is false.
  4. (R) is true but, (A) is false.

Ans : Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) explains (A).

V. Answer the following in brief

1. State the boundaries of Tamil Nadu.

Tamilnadu is bounded by Bay of Bengal in the east

  • Kerala in the west
  • Karnataka in the northwest
  • Andhra Pradesh in the north
  • Indian Ocean in the south.

2. What is ‘Teri’?

The sand dunes formed along the coast of Ramanathapuram and Thoothukudi districts are called Teri.

3. How is coastal plain formed?

Coastal plains are formed by the rivers that flow towards the east and drain in to the Bay of Bengal.

4. Name the major islands of Tamil Nadu.

Pamban, Hare,Krusadai Nallathanni Theevy, Pullivasal, Srirangam, Upputanni, Island Grounds,Kattupalli Island, Quibble Island and Vivekananda Rock Memorial are some major islands of Tamilnadu.

6. Name the tributaries of river Thamirabarani.

The tributaries of river Tamirabarani are:

  • Karaiyar
  • Manimuthar
  • Pachaiyar
  • Ramanathi
  • Servalar
  • Gadananathi
  • Chittar

6. Define: Disaster Risk Reduction.

Disaster risk reduction is the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and reduce the causal factors of disasters.

7. During cyclone, how does the Meterological department warn the fishermen?

Fishermen should keep a radio set with extra batteries handy; keep boats and rafts tied up safely and should not venture out in the sea.

VI. Distinguish between the following:

1. Thamiraparani and Cauvery

1. It originates at Talacauvery of Kodagu District of Karanataka.It originates from Pothigai Hills, Papanasam in Ambasamudram taluk.
2. It flows through the district of Salem, Erode, Trichy and ThanjavurIt courses through the districts of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi.
3. The important tributaries of River Cauvery are Bhavani, Noyyal and Amaravathi.It main tributaries are Karaiyar, Chittar, Servalar, Manimuthar, Gadananathi, Pachaiyar and Ramanathi.

VII. Give Reasons for the following:

1. Eastern Ghats are not a continuous range.

Eastern Ghats is a discontinuous and irregular one because it is dissected at many places by the rivers.

2. Tamil Nadu receives low rainfall during southwest monsoon.

  • During the season of South-west monsoon, Tamil Nadu is located in the rain shadow region for the wind which blows from the Arabian Sea.
  • As a result, Tamil Nadu receives only a meagre rainfall from this monsoon

3. Cuddalore is a multiprone disaster zone.

  • A sudden natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss to lives and properties is called as disaster.
  • Cuddalore is often affected by flood, cyclone earth quakes, tremors and tidal waves. So, it is a multiprone disaster zone.

VIII. Answer the following in a paragraph

1. Describe the nature of the plateau region of Tamilnadu.

  • Plateaus of Tamil Nadu are located between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
  • It is triangular in shape. It covers an area of 60,000 sq.km.
  • Its height increases from east to west.
  • This plateau is broader in the north and very narrow in the south.
  • It has many subdivisions.

Bharamahal plateau:

  • Bharamahal plateau is a part of Mysore plateau. It is situated in the northwestern part of Tamil Nadu.
  • Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts are located in this region.

Coimbatore plateau:

  • It lies between the Nilgiris and Dharmapuri districts.
  • This region includes Salem, Coimbatore and Erode districts.
  • The area of this plateau is about 2,560 sq.km.
  • Moyar river separates this plateau from the Mysore plateau.
  • Rivers Bhavani, Noyyal and Amaravathi form valleys in this region.

Sigur plateau:

  • Sigure plateau is found in the Nilgiris region.

Madurai plateau:

  • Madurai plateau is found in Madurai district.
  • It extends upto the foothills of the Western Ghats.
  • Vaigai and Thamirabarani basins are located in this plateau.

2, Write an account on river Cauvery.

  • The river Cauvery originates at Talacauvery in the Kodagu district of Karnataka in the Western ghats.
  • It forms Hogenakkal waterfalls in Dharmapuri District.
  • Mettur dam is located across the river in Salem district.
  • A tributary called Bhavani joins Cauvery on the right bank.
  • Bhavani, Noyyal and Amaravathi are its tributaries. Bhavani and Noyyal join Cauvery at Thirumukkudal and this region is called “Aganda Cauvery”.
  • In Tiruchirapalli district, the river branches into two parts. The northern branch is called Coleroon or Kollidam and the southern branch remains the Cauvery. These two again join to form Srirangam Island.
  • Kallanai has been constructed across Cauvery.
  • The delta of Cauvery in the coast is called as the ‘Garden of South India’.
  • It merges into Bay of Bengal to the south of Cuddalore.

3. Explain the characteristic features of summer and winter season of Tamil Nadu.

Winter season:

  • During January and February, the vertical rays of the sun fall between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Equator. Hence, Tamil Nadu and India on the whole receive slanting rays from the sun.
  • So, the weather is slightly cooler during these months. The difference between summer and winter temperature is not very high. Winter temperature in Tamilnadu varies from 15°c to 25°c.

Summer Season:

  • The apparent migration of the Sun towards north during March, April and May results in the reception of vertical sun’s rays by South India. Thus there is a steady rise in temperature from the equator. Hence, Tamil Nadu located to the south of Topic of Cancer, experiences high temperature.
  • Generally the temperature varies from 30°c to more than 40°c. During this season particularly in the month of May, southern part of the state receives some rainfall from pre-monsoon showers (Mango/Blossom showers) and some parts experience convectional rainfall.

4. Bring out the types and distribution of soils in Tamil Nadu.

Types of soil:

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Black soil
  3. Red soil
  4. Laterite soil
  5. Saline soil

1. Alluvial soil :

Characteristics ;

  • Alluvial soils are generally fertile as they are rich in minerals such as lime, Pottassium, Magnesium, Nitrogen and phosphoric acid.
  • It is deficient in nitrogen and humus. It is porous and loamy.

Crops cultivated:

Paddy, sugarcane, banana and turmeric.


This type of soil is found in the districts of Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Villupuram, Cuddalore, Tirunelveli and Kanniyakumari.

2. Black soil:

Formation :

Black soil are formed by weathering of igneous rocks.

Characteristics :

It is fine textured and clayey in nature. Itis poor in phosphoric acid, nitrogen and organic matter.

Crops cultivated:

Cotton, Sorghum, Cumbu and fodder crops.


It is found in Coimbatore, Madurai, Virudhunagr, Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts.

3. Red soil:

Characteristics :

This soil is sandy and loamy in texture. Red soil is porous, friable and non-retentative of moisture.

Crops cultivated:

Paddy, ragi ,jtobacco and vegetables.


It is found in Sivagangai and Ramanathapuram districts.

4, Laterite soil :


It is formed by the process of intense leaching.

Crops cultivated:

Paddy, ginger, pepper, plantains, coffee and tea.

Distribution :

Kancheepuram, Tiruvallur, Thanjavur and Nilgiris districts.

5. Saline soil :

It is confined to the Coromandel coast. Vedaranyam has a pocket of saline soil.

5. What are the Risk reduction measures taken before and after cyclone.

The coastal regions of Tamil Nadu are often hit by the tropical cyclones formed in Bay of Bengal during North-east monsoon. Based on the cyclone hit areas, the state of Tamil Nadu can be divided into five zones namely very high, high medium, low and very low cyclone prone zones.

We can see the risk reductions measures that are to be taken before and the after cyclone. They are –


  • Ignore rumours, stay calm, don’t be panic, keep you mobile phones charged to ensure connectivity, use sms, listen to radio, watch TV and read newspapers for weather updates.
  • Keep your documents and valuables in water proof containers, prepare an emergency kit with essential items for survival, secure your house, carry out repairs, and don’t leave sharp objects loose.
  • Untie cattle/animals for their safety.
  • Fishermen should keep a radio set with extra batteries handy; keep boats and rafts tied up safely and don’t venture out in the sea.


  • Those who shifted to the cyclone centre must remain there till instructions are received: strictly avoid loose electrical wires after the cyclone
  • Beware of snakes and other insects immediately after the cyclone,
  • Clear debris and carcasses from/near the premise after the cyclone and
  • Report losses truthfully and accurately to the authorities.


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