11th English : The Portrait of a Lady
Unit 1.1 > The Portrait of a Lady
- mantelpiece – shelf projecting from the wall above a fireplace
- absurd – inconsistent/ illogical
- fables – tales/stories
- hobbled – walked unsteadily
- pucker – to contract the face into wrinkles
- expanse – widespread
- monotonous– unchanging /boring
- snapped – broke / cut
- seclusion – isolation
- bedlam – noisy confusion
- perched – sat / rested
- rebukes – scoldings
- dilapidated – damaged
- pallor – an unhealthy pale appearance
- shroud – cloth used to wrap a dead person
1. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences based on your understanding of the story
a. Describe the grandfather as seen in the portrait.
The author’s grandfather wore a big turban and loose fitting clothes. His long white beard covered his chest. He looked at least hundred years old.
b. Why was the author left with his grandmother in the village?
The author’s parents had gone to the city in order to earn their bread. They were not settled comfortably. Hence the author was left with his grandmother in the village.
c. Where did the author study in his childhood?
During his childhood the author studied in the village school which is attached to the temple.
d. Why did the grandmother accompany the author to school?
The author’s grandmother went to temple which was attached to the school. At the school hours she sat inside the temple reading the holy scriptures, Moreover she wanted to escort her grandson. So she accompanied the author to the school.
e. What made the dogs follow the grandmother after school hours?
While going to school and returning home the grandmother carried the stale chapattis and fed the dogs. This made the dogs follow the grandmother after school hours.
f. Why didn’t the grandmother feel sentimental when the author went abroad for higher education?
The author’s grandmother did not feel sentimental when the author went abroad for his higher education. She could not prevent him from going abroad. She bore the fact silently.
g. What was the happiest time of the day for grandmother?
The whole morning the author’s grandmother was busy with her spinning wheel. In the afternoon, she relaxed for a while to feed the sparrows. She broke the bread into little bits and fed hundreds of little birds. This was the happiest time of the day for grandmother.
2. Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each.
a. Describe the author’s grandmother.
The authour’s grandmother had been old and wrinkled. She had always been short and fat and slightly bent. Her face was a criss–cross of wrinkles. She had been terribly old. She could never have been pretty but she was always beautiful.
b. What was the daily routine of the grandmother at home?
Grand mother woke her grandson up in the morning. She got him ready for the school. She said her morning prayers. Simultaneously she bathed and dressed her grandson. She made all the arrangements for him. She accompanied him to the school. She read the holy scriptures at the temple and in the evening both returned home. These were the daily routine of the grandmother.
c. How is school education in the village different from that in the city?
In the village school the author had studied alphabet and learnt to recite morning prayers. But in the city he was taught English words and western science. He also learnt the law of gravity, Archimedes’ principle, the world being round etc.
d. The grandmother appreciated the value of education. Give instances in support of your answer.
While studying in the city school, the author told his grandmother about his learning of English and Western Science. She could not help her grandson. Moreover she was distressed that there was no teaching about God and the scriptures.
e. The grandmother was strong-minded. Justify.
One day the grandmother did not pray. She started to sing about the home coming warrior i.e. is her grandson. She ignored the protests of the members of the family. She had mild fever then. Others thought that she would recover. But she thought differently. These instances show that she was strong minded.
f. How did the grandmother spend the last few hours of her life?
During the last few hours, the author’s grandmother did not pray. She called the women of her neighbourhood and started to sing about the home coming warrior. She had mild fever then. She knew that her end would come soon. She lied peacefully in bed praying and telling her beads. Suddenly her lips stopped moving and the rosary fell from her lifeless fingers
3. Answer the following in a paragraph of 100 – 150 words each.
a) The grandmother played a vital role in the author’s formative years. Give your own example of how elders have a positive influence on the younger generation. Include examples from the story also.
My grandmother is a great inspiration to me. She had a positive influence on me. When I did my schooling she used to narrate a lot of stories to me. Though she did not help me on my academic side, her stories had a close link with my school curriculum. Like Kushwant Singh’s grandma, my grandma was too pious. My grandma inculcated morality in me through her stories in the form of narrating bedtime tales. Actually, she taught me a lot through her bedtime stories. Sometimes she spun her own story. Later only I could realize it. She introduced to me many Puranas. She was a secularist. She told me stories from the Holy Bible too. She cited the quotes even from the Quran. I missed her a lot when she was on a deathbed. As soon as I heard of her ailment, I rushed but I was late. I was unfortunate to be by her side when she left the world. Thanks to my grandmother, I am a person of morality now.
b) As young Khushwant Singh, write a letter to your parents describing your daily routine along with your thoughts and feelings about staying in the village.
2nd March 2018.
Dear Dad and Mom,
Well and wish to hear the same from you. Here I am fine. Grandma is also fine. She fills my belly with her hand-made-delicious chapattis. Not only that, she teaches me a lot of moral stories. She helps me even in arithmetics too. We go to school regularly in the morning. At that moment she feeds the stray dogs with stale chapattis. When I attend my school, she is praying at the temple which is beside the school. When we return home in the evening the dogs follow us. They fight with one another for the chapattis we give them. I feel very happy about being here with my sweet grandma. Take care of your health. There is no need to worry about me. I enjoy my life with my sweet grandma.
Yours loving son,
Address on the envelope:
Sir Sobha Singh,
3, Sixth Avenue,
Hadali, Kushab district,
c) Animals are capable of empathy. Substantiate this statement with examples from the story as well as your own experiences.
In the village, grandmother used to feed the dogs with stale chapattis both in the morning and evening. When she came to the city her life had been changed a lot. She could not move freely as in the village. She spent most of her time with her spinning wheel. During the afternoon she came to the verandah and fed the sparrows regularly. This was the happiest part of the day. The grandmother lay dead. Thousands of sparrows came there. They did not chirrup. They paid their last homage to the old lady silently. The narrator’s mother threw some crumbs of bread to them. They took no notice of them. As soon as the grandmother’s corpse was carried off, the sparrows flew away quietly.
The same thing happened in my life too. My uncle had a pet dog. On the sudden demise of my uncle the dog did not have any intake for another one week and it starved to death itself. When I read this story that incident came to my mind. Hence animals are capable of empathy.
|Paragraph for Slow Learners|
a) Read the following words and choose the correct antonyms from the options given:
Ans ; accept
Ans ; anxiety
Ans ; gathered
Ans ; interesting
b) Fill in the blanks choosing the appropriate compound words from those given in the box:
Reeta hurried along the road, dressed in her spotless new dress towards the bus stop. Before sunset, she had to reach the house of her grandmother. But the first half-hour of her travel was slow due to traffic jam. Her homecoming would be regarded with joy. She was overstraining herself to reach the place. When she finally stepped into the courtyard, she was received with a big hug by her kind aunt. She was in time to join the singsong at the village, for a gentlefolk.
c) Match the words in Column A with their pairs in Column B to form compound words and write them in Column C
d) Frame meaningful sentences of your own using the following expressions from the story. Use a dictionary if required.
i. the thought was almost revolting
My brother’s thought of selling our ancestral house is revolting to me.
ii. an expanse of pure white serenity
Prema is an expanse of pure white serenity.
iii. a turning point
My friendship with Latha is a turning point in my life.
iv. accepted her seclusion with resignation
My parents proposed to me to study medicine, though I did not like it. But I accepted their seclusion with resignation.
v. frivolous rebukes
I got frivolous rebukes often from my father
e) Prefixes and Suffixes.
Form two derivatives from each of the following words.
- honest – dishonest, honesty
- manage – management, manager
- differ – different, difference
- beauty – beautiful, beautician
- peace – peaceful, peacefully
- arrange – arrangement, disarrange
- collect – collection, collector
- approve – unapproved, approval
- narrate – narrative, narration
- class – classic, classify
Fill in the blanks with suitable homophones:
i) brake / break
a) We have a short ___________ between the sessions.
Ans : break – இடைவேளை
b) The car skidded to a halt when I applied the ___________.
Ans : brake – வீணாக்குதல்
a) Shivani wears a belt around her ___________.
Ans : waist – இடை
b) We should never misuse or ___________natural resources.
Ans : waste – வீணாக்குதல்
a) Oxygen is the ___________ element present in the earth’s crust.
Ans : principal – முதன்மை
b) Both these machines work on the same ___________.
Ans : principle – கொள்கை
a) Turtles should be ___________ in a healthy environment.
Ans : bred – இனப்பெருக்கம் செய்தல்
b) I like to have toasted ___________ for breakfast.
Ans : bread – ரொட்டித்துண்டு
a) This medicine will ___________ your pain.
Ans : lessen – குறைத்தல்
b) Finally, the manager learnt a ___________ the hard way.
Ans : lesson – பாடம்
a) The child looks very sick and ___________.
Ans : pale – வெளுத்துபோய்
b) I need a ___________ of water to wash these cups.
Ans : pail – வாளி
a) Ravi picked the banana peel and ___________ it in the dustbin.
Ans : threw – தூக்கி எறிதல்
b) The soldiers had to pass ___________ a dark tunnel.
Ans : through – வழியாக
a) The ___________ was covered with a shroud.
Ans : corpse – சடலம்
b) A five-day annual training camp for the senior cadets of the National Cade ___________ has been organised.
Ans : corps – படை
Read the following statements and the given options. Now, listen to your teacher read aloud a passage or play it on a recorder. You may listen to it again if required, to help you choose the right options.
i) According to Napoleon ‘Good mothers make good __________.’
Ans : nations
ii) Mothers exhibit ______ love.
Ans : unconditional
iii) ________ mothers care much for their children.
Ans : Adoptive
iv) ________ is the most important thing in the world.
Ans : Love
v) Love should be extended to _________ too.
Ans : creatures
I. Now, read the following passage on “Laughter Therapy” and answer the questions that follow.
1. Laughing is an excellent way to reduce stress in our lives; it can help you to cope with and survive a stressful life. Laughter provides full-scale support for your muscles and unleashes a rush of stress busting endorphins. Since our body cannot distinguish between real and fake laughter, anything that makes you giggle will have a positive impact.
2. Laughter Therapy aims to get people laughing, in groups and individual sessions and can help reduce stress, make people and employees happier and more committed, as well as improve their interpersonal skills. This laughter comes from the body and not the mind.
3. Laughter Yoga (Hasya yoga) is a practice involving prolonged voluntary laughter. It aims to get people laughing in groups. It is practised in the early mornings in open-parks. It has been made popular as an exercise routine developed by Indian physician Madan Kataria, who writes about the practice in his 2002 book ‘Laugh for no reason’. Laughter Yoga is based on the belief that voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter.
4. Laughter yoga session may start with gentle warm up techniques which include stretching, chanting, clapping, eye contact and body movements to help break down inhibitions and encourage a sense of playfulness. Moreover, laughter is the best medicine. Breathing exercises are used to prepare the lungs for laughter followed by a series of laughter exercises that combine a method of acting and visualization techniques. Twenty minutes of laughter is sufficient to augment physiological development.
5. A handful of small scale scientific studies have indicated that laughter yoga has some medically beneficial effects, including cardiovascular health and mood. This therapy has proved to be good for depressed patients. This laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding.
Answer the following
a. How does laughter help one to cope with stress?
Laughter provides full-scale support for your muscles and unleashes a rush of stress busting endorphins.
b. Which word in the text (para 2) means the same as ‘dedicated’?
The word “committed” means the same as dedicated.
c. Why do you think voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter?
It is believed by everyone that laughter yoga is the best substitute for every medicine. Madan Kataria wrote the benefits of laughing in his book “Laugh for no reason”. Purely it is the belief of everyone.
d. ‘Laughter is the best medicine’. Explain.
Other physical exercises should be done with proper stretch of body. They should be practised systematically whereas laughing is done easily without any stress and strain. It cures all the diseases and ailments. Hence laughter is the best medicine.
e. Given below is a set of activities. Which of these are followed in the ‘Laughter Yoga’ technique?
- sitting on the ground with legs crossed
- body movements
- closed eyes
- breathing exercises
- stretching of arms and legs
- bending backwards
- eye contact
Body movements, clapping, chanting, eye contact are followed in the “Laughter Yoga technique”.
f. ‘Laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding’. How?
Laughter Yoga is a practice involving people in groups. When they gather for this yoga, they become cordial with one another. Naturally it develops the social bonding. They understand each other. They gather for one common aim. They are happy and can improve their interpersonal skills.
Articles and Determiners
a. Read the paragraph below and fill in the blanks using ‘a, an’, or ‘the’.
It is said that 1 ___________ computer is 2 ___________ electronic extension of the human brain. Therefore, in principle, 3 ___________ computer can do all those activities which 4 ___________ human brain can do. Today computers are found to be 5 ___________ most useful devices as knowledge providers. Another important field of application of computers is 6 ___________ development of robots. 7 ___________ internet has brought 8 ___________ drastic change in communication systems.
Ans : 1 – a, 2 – an, 3 – the, 4 – the, 5 – the, 6 – the, 7 – The, 8 – a
b. In the following paragraph, insert ‘a, an’, or ‘the’ wherever necessary and rewrite the sentences.
In our family, we have planned to take children to the zoo next Sunday. A van has been arranged and we are sure to have a comfortable journey. Zoo is an interesting place for the children who enjoy watching animals and want to know more about them. Even the youngsters love to visit the zoo.
c. Fill in the blanks with appropriate determiners. (Articles have been included)
Once the emperor gave a bag of seeds to his council of ministers and said that he would give them six months’ time to grow the seeds. Whoever does a good job will be made the next emperor of that empire. Many the ministers took their task seriously. After six months some ministers had small plants in their pots. A few had very large plants. Some had medium sized plants. The emperor entered the hall. He was much amused to see the plants. He called the first minister and asked him what he did with the seed. That minister explained the process he adopted to make the plant grow. The emperor called the the other ministers to explain what they did. Only one minister had come with an empty pot. They laughed loudly at the foolishness of this minister. But the Emperor applauded him and made him the next Emperor. Do you know why? He had given them boiled seeds which will not grow. Only that minister was honest.
d. Fill in the blanks with appropriate determiners.
i. They came early but there was ____________ (little/ a little) work to do.
Ans : little
ii. Anand invited ______________ (few/ a few) friends for the birthday party.
Ans : a few
iii. The teacher gave __________ (all/ every) student a separate topic for the assignment.
Ans : every
iv. _________ (Most of/Many) the water overflowed from the tank.
Ans : Most of
v. Each one of my _____________ (friend/ friends) wished me on my birthday.
Ans : friends
vi. Vijay had _________ (no/ any) idea about the problem.
Ans : no
vii. Adhi had taken ___________ (much /many) photos during the programme.
Ans : many
viii. ______________ (Some/Few) girls who attended the class informed the others about the test
Ans : Some
a. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets and read the completed passage aloud.
The people of India, as a whole, 1 ___________ (be) warm-hearted and hospitable. Any calamity in any part of the world immediately 2 ___________ (arise) their charity and generosity and a committee 3 ___________ (be) promptly 4 ___________ (set ) up to collect funds to help the distressed. The most endearing quality in them 5 ___________ (be) the respect they show for the work done in any capacity. They 6 ___________ (believe) in what we 7 ___________ (call) the dignity of labour.
Ans : 1 – are, 2 – arouses, 3 – is, 4 – set, 5 – is, 6.- believe, 7 – call
b. Now, use the verbs given in brackets in the following sentences in their correct forms.
1. I (like) to spend time with my friend, whenever I (be) free.
Ans : like, am
2. He (is) likely to miss the train. He (run) up to the station.
Ans : is, runs
3. At the moment they (wait) at the busstop. But I (not know) their plans for the journey.
Ans : are waiting, do not know
4. They firmly (believe) in the existence of God.
Ans : believe
5. We (hear) a lot of noise because the new buildings (transmit) sound vacant.
Ans : hear, transmit
6. She always (make) excuses for coming late.
Ans : makes
7. The Prime Minister (leave) for America to meet the delegates tomorrow
Ans : leaves
c. You are a commentator for a 5000 metre running race. Use simple present and present continuous tenses and complete the commentary from the beginning to the end of the race. Read the completed passage aloud.
The 5000 metre race is about to begin. Lined up at the starting point, from left to right, are John of Great Britain, Peter of Nigeria and Jeeva of India. The runners are warming up for the great event. Now they 1 ___________ (take) their positions on the track. They 2 ___________ (be) all ready for the start. There 3 ___________ (go) the starter’s gun! Yes, the race has begun. John 4 ___________ (lead) with Jeeva 5 ___________ (close) behind him.
Ans : 1 – are taking, 2 – are, 3 – goes, 4 – is leading, 5 – closing / close
d. Read the extract from Kayal’s diary entry regarding her Nepal Trek, and fill in he blanks with the correct tense form of the verbs given in brackets.
DAY 1 : We left (leave) Anna International Airport in Chennai two days ago catching a direct flight to Kathmandu in Nepal. We spent (spend) a day sightseeing. Kathmandu is full of people, rickshaws and the smell of sandalwood. I’ve never been (be) on a trip like this before. So I’m really excited.
DAY 2 : It was running (rain) when we reached Pokhara, Nepal’s second largest city, and saw the snowy peaks of the Himalayas for the first time. We reached (reach) Pokhara after a hairraising six-hour bus journey along very narrow roads with a lot of hairpin bends. The bus was (be) so full that one person had to share the driver’s seat.
DAY 3 : We began (begin) our trek at last. We are at about 900 metres and the weather is warm and humid. For lunch we had chips and yak cheese sandwiches. I didn’t like them very much. I’m thrilled that we pitched (pitch) tents for our camps in the dense forests.
DAY 4 : Yesterday a landslide blocked (block) our path and we had to use ropes to get over it. This morning we walked along the river Kali Gandaki through dense forests of oak trees and we pitched our camp at Tukuche below the Annapurna mountain range. The main danger in addition to landslides, is ‘yak attack’. Yaks are (be) not dangerous but you have to be careful if you meet a herd of them because they can push you off the sides of the mountain.
DAY 5 : We met a lot of children on our trek through the villages. They were playing (play) in the pool of muddy rain water as we left the place. We have already climbed 2,400 metres. Up here, it never rains (rain) and there are no trees. It is (be) windy and dusty and I am always thirsty.
DAY 6 : Yesterday we went (go) up to the mountainside of the township of Mukthinath, at 3,600 metres. The thin air with less oxygen there left (leave) us breathless.We felt (feel) that we couldn’t go any further. We drank(drink) a lot of extra fluids to prevent altitude sickness.
DAY 7 We turned around today and started to descend to Jomosom. As we went down, the oxygen filled our blood again and we seemed to fly (fly) instead of walking.
DAY 8 : We went back to Pokhara in a small plane yesterday. It was exciting (excite) when we flew between the mountain peaks. We arrived in Kathmandu this afternoon and we spent (spend) our last few hours in shopping. We leave for Chennai tomorrow. We’ve had a trip of a lifetime.
e. In the following passage, bracket the verbs in simple present tense and underline the verbs in simple past. The first one has been done for you.
i) Unless one (is) upright there (is) no use in being a charming fellow. Sometimes it (is) better to be honest than attractive. These (are) the great truths of modern life which Shyam never realised. He never said an ill-natured word in his life. He was always polite and spoke softly to everybody.
ii) That night he strolled into the Palette Club about eleven o’clock, and found Trevor sitting by himself in the long room. “Well, Alan, did you get the picture finished all right? ” he said, as he lit his cigarette. “Finished and framed, my boy!” answered Trevor, “and by-the-bye, you have made a conquest. That old model you saw (is) quite devoted to you. I had to tell him all about you — who you (are), where you live, what your income (is), what prospects you (have).”
iii) “And now (tell) me how Laura (is). The old model was quite interested in her.” “You (don’t mean) to say you talked to him about her?” said Hughie. “Certainly I did. He (knows) all about the relentless colonel, the lovely Laura, and the £10,000.” “You told that old beggar all my private affairs?” cried Hughie, looking very red and angry. “My dear Alan,” cried Hughie, “I shall probably find him waiting for me when I (go) home.”
f. Fill in the blanks using Past tense forms of the verbs:
i. I ____________ never ____________ (see) such a beautiful sunrise before I came here.
Ans : had, seen
ii. We were not able to stay overnight as we ___________ not ___________ (reserve) the tickets in advance.
Ans : had, reserved
iii. Nirmala ___________ (be) to the concert several times.
Ans : had been
iv. Mariappan knew Pudukottai so well because he ____________ (live) there for five years.
Ans : had lived
v. Yusuf understood the problem because he __________ (experience) the situation earlier.
Ans : had experienced
vi. Catherine did not have any cash because she ____________ (lose) her purse.
Ans : had lost
vii. My father _________(be) to Mumbai once before.
Ans : had been
viii. The cat ___________ (chase) the bird before it flew out of the yard.
Ans : had chased
ix. Edith _____________ (visit) several doctors before she found out what the problem was with her knee.
Ans : had visited
x. If we _______ (call) the manager ahead, we would not have needed to wait so long for a table.
Ans : had called
g. Read the following news report and underline the past perfect tense form of the verb and bracket the simple past tense form of the verb.
INDIA BEAT PAKISTAN TO WIN BLIND CRICKET WORLD CUP
Chasing a huge target of 308 runs, India (romped) home in the penultimate over of the match to defeat Pakistan and win the Blind Cricket World Cup. India (started off) their chase in a cracking manner, but had lost two quick wickets. Sunil Ramesh rose to the occasion as he (played) a great knock to help India (beat) Pakistan and had scored 93 runs. Earlier India (won) the toss and had decided to bowl first. Pakistan (amassed) a
huge score of 307 for eight in 40 overs. Their openers had given them a brisk start which the later batsmen capitalized on.
h. Read the following extract and fill in the spaces with the right form of verbs and complete the passage. The first one is done for you.
(i) The poet stops to hear the maiden singing while she 1 ___________ (cut) and 2 ___________ (bind) the grain. The song of the lady 3 ___________ (fascinate) the poet, who 4 ___________ (stand) there to listen to the song. The girl ___________ (sing) a sad song.
Ans : 1 – was cutting, 2 – binding, 3 – fascinated, 4 – stood, 5 – sang
(ii) During the monsoon, a tender slightly warm breeze 1 ___________(blow) on a cloudless afternoon. A sort of fragrance 2 ___________ (rise) from the wet grass and trees in the sunlight. It 3 ___________ (seem) as if the warm breath of the exhausted earth 4 ___________ (fall) against one’s skin. A sweet voiced bird somewhere 5 ___________ (chirp) repeatedly.
Ans : 1 – was blowing, 2 – rose, 3 – seemed, 4 – was falling, 5 – was chirping
i. Read the news item that appeared in a daily and fill in the blanks with suitable forms of the verbs given in brackets.
Ever since social networking sites entered our lives, they 1 ___________ (serve) as platforms where users could use the virtual space offered by these social media. However, recent incidents 2 ___________ (cause) many to question the freedom to express views on various issues and in some cases, it 3 ___________ (become) a dangerous platform. Social Contact 4 ___________ (transform) people. They 5 ___________ (develop) an addiction to it.
Ans : 1 – have served, 2 – have caused, 3 – has become, 4 – has transformed, 5 – have developed
j. Read the following passage and correct the errors you come across.
1. Rajan slowly settle down in his retired life. His pension plus what his wife brings from the household work she does helped them to meet their requirements. Life is easy until one Sunday. His granddaughter Madhu come crying. The clay doll in her hand had broken into two. Rajan pacify her and promise to mend it. This small repair work become the founding stone of a very prosperous venture into making clay dolls which earn him great respect.
Rajan slowly settled down in his retired life. His pension plus what his wife brought from the household work she had helped them to meet their requirements. Life is easy until one Sunday. His granddaughter Madhu came crying. The clay doll in her hand had broken into two. Rajan pacified her and promised to mend it. This small repair work became the founding stone of a very prosperous venture into making clay dolls which earned him great respect.
2. Games and sports helps in recreation. Soccer, cricket, lawn tennis or wrestling is eagerly watched by millions of fans all over a world. It helps one got a temporary relief from the tensions of a day. The dedication displayed by all player in the field indicates the mental and spiritual development of the player.
Games and sports help in recreation. Soccer, cricket, lawn tennis or wrestling are eagerly watched by millions of fans all over the world. It helps one get temporary relief from the tensions of a day. The dedication displayed by all the players in the field indicate the mental and spiritual development of the player
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