Tamil Nadu 12th Standard English Book Answers | A Nice Cup of Tea

12th English : A Nice Cup of Tea

12th Standard English Book Unit 2.1 A Nice Cup of Tea Book Back Answers

Unit 2.1 > A Nice Cup of Tea

Warm Up

a) Here are a few varieties of tea. How many of these have you tasted? Tick the boxes.

Herbal TeaIce Tea
Lemon TeaüGreen Teaü
 Black TeaüTea with Milkü

b) You would have seen lovely packets of tea on the shelves in supermarkets and shops. Have you ever wondered how tea powder is obtained from the plants? Look at the pictures and describe the process.

The tea leaves are plucked by the workers.The plucked leaves are dried in sunlight
The dried leaves are powdered.The tea power is packed.


  • curious – interesting
  • controversial – arguable, disputable
  • virtues – admirable qualities
  • despised – hated
  • stimulation – excitement, encouragement
  • optimistic – positive, hopeful
  • cauldron – a big pot used for boiling
  • rationing – restricting the consumption of a scarce commodity during war
  • dangling – hanging freely, suspended
  • spout – the pipe-like opening in a teapot through which tea is poured out
  • liable – likely
  • mysterious – incomprehensible
  • etiquette – socially acceptable behaviour

1. Based on the understanding of the text, answer each of the following questions in one or two sentences.

a) What seems ‘curious’ to the author?

The method of preparing is not mentioned in the cooking book. Only a few lines of sketchy instructions are given. This is curious to the author.

b) Why does the author say that it is important to include a tea recipe in cookery books?

There are lots of disputes to find out the best way of preparing a nice cup of tea. So it is important.

c) Mention the countries in which tea is a part of civilization. 

Briton, Erie, Australia and New Zealand have tea as part of their civilization.

d) Which tea does the author prefer – China tea or Indian tea?

The author prefers Indian tea to China tea.

e) According to the author, what does the phrase ‘a nice cup of tea’ refer to?

The idiom ‘a nice cup of tea’ means that something suits someone nicely.

f) What is the second golden rule in the preparation of tea?

Second golden rule is that tea should be made in teapot in small quantities. The teapot should be made of China or earthenware.

g) How does Army tea taste?

Army tea tastes of grease and whitewash.

h) Do tea lovers generally like strong tea or weak tea?

Tea lovers generally like strong tea.

i) Why should tea be directly added to the pot?

Tea should be directly added to the pot to avoid imprisoning the tea. If the tea is not loose in the pot, it never in fuses properly.

j) Why does the author prefer the cylindrical cup to a flat cup?

The cylindrical cup keeps the heat for some time. So he prefers the cylindrical cup. The other types of cup will make the tea cold before we start drinking it.

k) What should be poured into the cup first- tea or milk?

According to the author, tea should be poured first.

l) Why does the author advise removing cream from the milk?

Creamy milk will give a sticky taste to the tea. So the author advises to remove the cream from the milk.

m) Does the author like drinking tea with sugar? Give reasons.

No, the author does not like drinking tea with sugar. Sugar will destroy the flavour of tea. If we add sugar we taste only the sugar, not the tea.

n) Why does the author refer to himself being in ‘a minority’?

Drinking tea without sugar may not be liked by many. In this case he is ‘a minority’.

o) Whom does the author call ‘misguided people’? What is his advice to them?

The author calls those who would like to drink tea with sugar ‘misguided youth’. He advises them to taste tea without sugar for two weeks. Then they will begin to like tea without sugar.

2. Based on the understanding of the text, answer each of the following questions in four or five sentences.

a) What are the author’s views on China tea?

The author says that one should select Indian or Ceylonese tea. China tea may be economical but there is not much stimulation in it. One does not feel wiser, braver or more optimistic after drinking it.

b) How does adding sugar affect the taste of tea?

According to the author, tea without sugar gives the real taste. Sugar destroys the taste of tea. It is as good as adding pepper and salt. If we add sugar, we taste only the sugar, and not the tea.

c) Elucidate the author’s ideas about tea pots.

Tea should be prepared in teapot only. The teapot should be made of china or earthenware. Silver or Britannia ware teapots produce inferior tea and enamel pots are worse; though curiously enough a pewter teapot is not so bad.

3. Answer each of the following questions in a paragraph of 100- 150 words.

a) Summarise George Orwell’s distinctive ideas in “A Nice Cup of Tea”.

This is curious, not only because tea is one of the main stays of civilization in this country,
but because the best manner of making it is the subject of violent disputes.

The first impressions from reading George Orwell’s essay “A Nice Cup of Tea” include Orwell explaining the correct ways of handling the essences of drinking tea. The central meaning within this essay relates to the methods of preparing the perfect cup of tea. According to him there are eleven points to follow to prepare a nice cup of tea. First of all one should select Indian or Ceylonese tea. Secondly, tea should be made in a teapot in small quantities. The teapot should be made of china or earthenware. Thirdly the pot should be warmed beforehand keeping it on the hob. Fourthly, to make strong tea we should take six heaped teaspoons of tea. Fifthly, the tea should be put straight into the pot without using strainers or muslin bags. Sixthly, the teapot should be taken to the kettle and not the other way about. Seventhly, after making the tea, one should stir it or give the pot a good shake. Afterwards tea leaves can be allowed to settle. Eighthly, one should use a breakfast cup to drink tea. The cylindrical type of cup will keep the heat longer. Ninthly cream should be removed from the milk before using it for tea. Tenthly, one should pour the tea into the cup first and milk second. If the milk is added second one could regulate the amount of milk. Lastly tea should be drunk without sugar.

There are few hours in life more agreeable than the hour dedicated to the ceremony known as afternoon tea.

b) Discuss how the essay reveals the factual points and the author’s personal opinions on preparation of tea.

There are few hours in life more agreeable than the hour dedicated
to the ceremony known as afternoon tea.

The first impressions from reading George Orwell’s essay “A Nice Cup of Tea” include Orwell explaining the correct ways of handling the essence of drinking tea. The speaker guides the reader through instructions on how to prepare and drink tea and then talks about many of the faults people currently are doing when drinking their tea. The title of the essay directly refers to the essay’s content as well as the idiom which means that something suits someone nicely such as how elegant Orwell describes tea in general. The central meaning within this essay relates to methods of preparing the perfect cup of tea. It is mostly about the author’s personal opinion connected with the factual points. Out of eleven points some are accepted factual points and some are his personal opinion. Selection of tea is his opinions. Second point about the teapot seems to be his opinion. Whether to pour tea first or milk first is also his opinion.

If you fuel your journey on the opinions of others, you are going to run out of gas

c) What are the aspects that contribute to humour in the essay?

One should drink out of a good breakfast cup —
that is, the cylindrical type of cup, not the flat, shallow type.

The first impressions from reading George Orwell’s essay “A Nice Cup of Tea” include Orwell explaining the correct ways of handling the essence of drinking tea. The speaker guides the reader through instructions on how to prepare and drink tea and then talks about many of the faults people currently are doing when drinking their tea. The title of the essay directly refers to the essay’s content as well as the idiom which means that something suits someone nicely such as how elegant Orwell describes tea in general. There are some points which are humorous. His description of the selection of teapot is one such point. Moreover selection of cup and pouring tea before milk are humorous. All true tea lovers not only like their tea strong but like it a little stronger with each year that passes – a fact which is recognized in the extra ration issued to old-age pensioners. The last point of taking tea without milk contributes to humour in the essay.

A good sense of humour is an escape valve for the pressure of life.

4. Based on your understanding of the text, complete the chart given below by choosing the appropriate words or phrases given in brackets.

Golden Rules of Tea Preparation

(add sugar, shaken, milk, infused properly, strainers, without cream, taken to the kettle, small quantities, China or earthenware, stirred, warmed)

Tea should be made in small quantities in a teapot.

The teapot should be made of china or earthenware

The pot should be warmed beforehand.

The pot should not have strainers.

While pouring water the teapot should be infused properly.

Tea leaves should be stirred.

After making tea, it should be shaken or the pot should be taken to the kettle.

The milk for the tea should be without cream.

The author does not like to add sugar to tea.


a) Find out the synonym of the underlined word in each of the following sentences.

1. But because the best manner of making it is the subject of violent disputes.

  1. agreements
  2. applauses
  3. conflicts
  4. discussions

Ans ; conflicts

2. …tea is one of the mainstays of civilization in the country.

  1. a society in an advanced state of social development
  2. a society that has slow progress
  3. a society that has no progress
  4. a society in an average state of social development

Ans ; a society in an average state of social development

3. …that they only drink it in order to be warmed and stimulated.

  1. motivated
  2. discouraged
  3. passive
  4. admired

Ans ; motivated

4. …under the spout to catch the stray leaves.

  1. fresh
  2. isolated
  3. gathered
  4. harmful

Ans ; isolated

5. One is liable to put in too much milk.

  1. likely
  2. certain
  3. eager
  4. unlikely

Ans ; likely

b) Find out the antonym of the underlined word in each of the following sentences.

1. …which are not to be despised.

  1. hated
  2. liked
  3. respected
  4. defeated

Ans ; liked

2. One does not feel wise, braver or more optimistic.

  1. opportunistic
  2. cheerful
  3. realistic
  4. pessimistic

Ans ; pessimistic

3. Not the flat, shallow type…

  1. narrow
  2. wide
  3. deep
  4. direct

Ans ; deep

4. Predicting the arrival of visitors…

  1. journey
  2. departure
  3. migration
  4. perusal

Ans ; departure

5. …but they are sufficient to show how subtilized the whole business has become.

  1. enough
  2. suffocative
  3. inadequate
  4. submissive

Ans ; inadequate

c) Fill in the boxes supplying the correct answers. The first one has been done for you.

Word with meaning and part of speechSentenceNoun / Verb / Adj. formSentence
Word : wise
Meaning : clever
Parts of speech : adjective
My brother is wise.wisdomMy brother showed great wisdom in business.
Word : harm
Meaning : damage
Parts of speech : verb
We should not harm others.harmfulWhat we do should not be harmful to others
Word : stimulate
Meaning : kindle
Parts of speech : verb
Tea stimulates our thinking.stimulationWe take tea for stimulation
Word : argue
Meaning : discuss
Parts of speech : verb
We argued to finalise place for our team.argumentWe should not indulge in unnecessary argument.
Word : strong
Meaning : sturdy
Parts of speech : adjective
The wall is very strong.strengthThe strength of the building depends on the quality of steel and cement.
Word : destroy
Meaning : abolish
Parts of speech : verb
Very old things should be destroyed.destructionThe destruction of old building is being done by the workers.


Listen to the passage about the ‘Significance of Tea’ and answer the questions.


1. Which country is the largest tea producer in the world?

China is the largest tea producer in the world.

2. _____ percent of the tea produced in India is exported.

Ans ; 30

3. What is the role of antioxidants in tea?

Antioxidants in tea might prevent cancer.

4. Drinking tea strengthens one’s ______, _______ and __________ .

Ans ; teeth, bones and immune system

5. How does drinking tea help a diabetic?

Regular tea drinking might lower blood sugar.


Look at the following non-verbal representation. Based on your understanding and inference, write a paragraph on career trends in the next decade.

10 Fastest -Growing Occupations from 2018-2028


01. Wind & Solar Energy Technicians ……………………. 106%
02. Personal Care & Home health Aides ………………… 85%
03. Physician Assistants & Nurse ……………………………… 70%
04. Statisticians& Mathematicians ……………………………. 35%
05. Media persons & Journalists ……………………………….. 45%
06. Application Software Developers ……………………….. 55%
07. Bicycle repairers & Mechanics …………………………….. 40%
08. Teachers& Lecturers ……………………………………………… 35%
09. Sportsmen & Coaches …………………………………………… 25%
10. Chefs & food analysts ……………………………………………. 20%

Answer :

The chart shows the 10 fastest growing occupations from 2018 to 2028. The most popular profession will be in the wind and solar energy field. The technician course in the field will grow by 106%. Next comes Personal Care & Home health Aids. It has 85% growth. Physician Assistants and Nurse stand third with 70% growth. Next comes Software Developers with 55% growth. Media persons and journalists are still in a good position with 45%. Bicycle repairers & Mechanics surprisingly come next with 40%. Statisticians, Mathematicians, Teachers and Lecturers have a poor place compared to many other professions. They all have 35%. Then come Sportsmen & Coaches and Chefs & food analysts. with 25% and 20% respectively. So the highest is Wind and Solar energy technician and the lowest is Chief and food analyst.


Read the article on the emerging career options in the modern era and answer the questions that follow.

a) When do students start thinking about their career path?

Students start thinking about their career path at the higher secondary level.

b) How can students build a strong career?

Students should remember that to build a strong career they must take a decision after a thorough understanding of the prospective field and their underlying interest. They should develop their communication skill.

c) What are the integral aspects of a successful career?

Ability, attitude and interests are the integral aspects of a successful career.

d) What is meant by ‘culinary art’?

Cooking and hospitality in hotels are meant by ‘culinary arts’.

e) Why is media a popular career option?

This is the information era. So the print and entertainment media have become very popular.

f) Name some paramedical courses mentioned in the passage.

Optometry, pathology, nursing, physiotherapy, and dentistry are the paramedical courses mentioned in the passage.

g) Why is the Hotel Industry seen as the fastest growing in India?

The number of international travellers both for business and leisure is increasing. Hospitality and service industry offers career options such as house-keeping, front-desk executives, tourism management, etc.

h) Does it require one to be a player to opt for a career in the field of sports? Answer giving reasons.

No, one need not be a player to opt for a career in the field of sports. The field of sports offers various career options such as technical trainers, commentators, sports journalists, dieticians, referees, etc.

i) Pick one word from the passage which is the opposite of ‘modern’.


j) Which word in the passage means composed of people from many parts of the country’?

International travellers.

Grammar – Prepositions

A preposition is a word or a phrase that is used to show the relationship between a noun and another noun.

Task 1

Recall your learning of basic prepositions and complete the sentences using the prepositions given in brackets.

intowithsincein front ofnear/beside

a) The boy jumped _____ a narrow stream.

Ans ; into

b) Afsar will meet me _____ Friday morning.

Ans ; on

c) The temple is _____ the bank.

Ans ; near/beside

d) My friend will meet me _____ his brother tomorrow.

Ans ; with

e) There is usually a garden _____ a bungalow.

Ans ; in front of

f) Yuvan has been studying well _____ childhood.

Ans ; since

g) A trekker climbed _____ a mountain meticulously.

Ans ; over

h) There was a skirmish _____ my brother and sister.

Ans ; between

i) The laudable thoughts were apparent _____ many scholars in a conference.

Ans ; among

j) It is easy to work _____ the aegis of visionary leader

Ans ; under

Task 2

Complete the following passages using the prepositions given in brackets.

(among, for, at, to, in,)

i) When Lakshmi was 1) at school, she was keen 2) to learn music and languages. She involved herself 3) in the school orchestra. She was responsible 4) for conducting many programmes. She was very popular 5) among her schoolmates, as she was good friendly and helpful.

(after, with, on, before, of, in, for)

ii) 1) Before the interview started, Riaz was confident 2) of getting the job. He knew that he was qualified 3) for the job. He was interested 4) in discharging his duty perfectly. The interview panel was impressed 5) with his attitude and skills. So 6) after the interview, he was 7) on cloud nine.

Prepositional Phrase

A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition and a noun phrase.

Task 1

Underline the prepositional phrases. The first two examples have been done for you.

  1. With reference to your advertisement in a local newspaper, I am applying for the post of a salesman.
  2. The assignment will be completed in a few weeks.
  3. Ravi was appreciated by his teachers.
  4. We feel sorry for our mistakes.
  5. The boy studied well in spite of many obstacles.
  6. Our nation is famous for its glorious culture.
  7. We are proud of our children.
  8. My brother will return home in the evening.

Task 2 

Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositional phrase given in brackets.

(in favour of, in case of, according to, on the whole, on account of, on behalf of, in spite of, instead of)

a) ……………………… Kiran, Rajesh may attend a programme.

Ans ; Instead of

b) Many tourists visited Ooty ………………… heavy rains.

Ans ; in spite of

c) Expressing gratitude ……………………….. others is common in a vote of thanks.

Ans ; on behalf of

d) ………………….., I had a happy childhood.

Ans ; On the whole

e) Our teacher always acts …………………… her students.

Ans ; in favour of

f) …………… his laziness, the boy remained passive for a long time.

Ans ; On account of

g) …………….. Gandhiji, ahimsa means infinite love.

Ans ; According to

h) ……………… rain, take an umbrella

Ans ; In case of


A conjunction is a word that joins together words, phrases, clauses or sentences. There are two types of conjunctions, namely coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.

1. Coordinating Conjunctions

Cumulative conjunctionsand, also, as well as
Choice conjunctionsor, or else, otherwise
Contrast conjunctions yet, but, still, nevertheless, whereas, while
Consequence conjunctions so, and so, therefore, consequently, for

2. Subordinating Conjunctions

timebefore, after, when, while, till
placewhere, wherever, whether, whither
manneras, as if, as though
comparisonas, than
cause / reasonbecause, since, for
result / consequencethat, so that
purposeso that, in order that
condition / concessionif, unless, provided, even if
contrastthough, even though, although

Task 1

Choose the appropriate linker from within the brackets and complete the sentences.

a) I could not complete my paper in the examination _________ (because, but) I was slow in answering the questions.

Ans ; because

b) It started raining, _________ (yet, so) we could not play.

Ans ; yet

c) _________ (As, If ) I got up early, I managed to reach school on time

Ans ; As

d) _________ (Though/Whereas) he committed a mistake, he apologised_________ (and/since ) promised that he would not repeat it.

Ans ; Though, and

e) This is _________ (how/what) it must be done.

Ans ; how

f) The vendor saw the train moving slowly from the platform, _________ (therefore/until) he got in.

Ans ; therefore

g) I was not well, _________ (but/so) I did not attend the class.

Ans ; so

h) (If, Although) _________ she can drive , she travels by bus.

Ans ; Although

i) (If/Unless) _________ you register your name, you cannot participate in the competitions.

Ans ; Unless

j) (As soon as/Besides) _________ my father arrived home, I narrated the incident.

Ans ; As soon as

k) Be quick to hear _________ (then/) slow to speak.

Ans ; and

l) I am _________ (neither/either) an ascetic in theory _________(nor/or) in practice.

Ans ; neither

m) We fail to harness the rain water, _________ (consequently, nevertheless) we suffer.

Ans ; consequently

n) My brother will certainly clear GRE; _________ (yet/for) he works very hard.

Ans ; for

Task 2

Combine the sentences and rewrite them using the words given in the brackets.

a) The well was deep. Therefore, the fox could not get out of the well. (because)

Because the well was deep the fox could not get out of the well.

b) The work was over. We went home. (when)

When the work was over, we went home.

c) A library is a public place. We see a number of books kept there for reading. (where)

A library is a public place where we see a number of books kept for reading.

d) The culprit was caught. Immediately, he was taken to the police station. (as soon as)

As soon as the culprit was caught, he was taken to the police station.

e) The boys were stealing mangoes from a grove. At that time, the owner of the grove came in.(while)

While the boys were stealing mangoes from a grove, the owner of the grove came in.

f) Artificially flavoured juices are hazardous to health. Moreover, they lead to kidney problems. (and)

Artificially flavoured juices are hazardous to health and they lead to kidney problems.

g) Adit has been promoted. Ranjan has been promoted. (as well as)

Adit as well as Ranjan has been promoted.

h) Caesar was declared emperor. The conspirators killed him. (After)

After Caesar was declared / had been declared emperor, the conspirators killed him.

Task 3

Fill in the blanks with appropriate correlative conjunctions.

a) She is _______ an understanding person _______ everybody likes to be with her.

Ans ; such, that

b) Suraj owns _______ a typewriter _______ a computer.

Ans ; both, and

c) Vani is _______ a good singer _______ a good dancer.

Ans ; not only, but also

d) Amit did not know _______ his father met his class teacher _______ not .

Ans ; whether, or

e) I would _______ starve _______ beg.

Ans ; rather, than


Task 1

Write an article of 150 words for your school magazine to create an awareness of the dangers posed by indiscriminate use of plastics. Expand the ideas given below as notes.


a. Introduction

  1. Plastic – synthetic material – doesn’t decompose in soil
  2. Inevitable role of plastic – man’s day-to-day life

b. Human Health Hazard

  1. Leeching of plastic into food – micro plastic entering food chain
  2. Human body’s inability to deal with this unnatural substance
  3. Reaction of micro plastic in human body and ill-effects

c. Adverse Effects on Plants and Animals

  1. Plastic particles choking waterways – affect aquatic animals
  2. Ingestion by aquatic and terrestrial animals – blocking of intestines and respiratory passages

d. Environmental Degradation

  1. Manufacturing process & burning of plastics – pollute atmosphere
  2. Plastic – non-biodegradable – interferes with soil microorganisms – affects soil fertility

e. Conclusion

  1. Suggestions for restricted use – alternatives for one-time use of plastics
  2. Segregation of plastic waste – for recycling


Plastic is a synthetic material. The main problem with the plastic is that it does not decompose in soil. So it even blocks water to seep in. Its presence in the soil spoils the soil and the soil becomes barren. But is it that easy to abolish plastic with a rule against it? It has an inevitable role to play in the life of man. It has become a part of man’s day-to-day life.

Human Health Hazard

Though it is useful to man it is a health hazard. The micro part of plastic enters our food. It becomes like a leech in our food. It produces indigestion problem to aquatic and terrestrial animals. Its presence inside our body blocks intestines and respiratory passages.

Environmental Degradation

Manufacturing process and burning of plastics pollute atmosphere. It is non-biodegradable so it interferes with soil micro-organism and affects soil fertility.


Total ban on plastic may affect the livelihood and the facility of our public. But we cannot allow the plastic to be used as we do now. So we can go for restricted use of plastic. The plastic companies may be restricted to make one-time use plastics. All the plastic waste should be segregated into different types and used for recycling.

Task 2

Urban living brings with it a possibility of various communicable diseases.

Now write an article of about 150 words for a leading newspaper on the various ways of maintaining personal hygiene and sanitation in order to ensure a healthy living. Make use of the hints given below.


a) Introduction – ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness’ – brief explanation

b) Personal Hygiene

  1. Frequent washing of hands & regular bathing
  2. Brushing of teeth, trimming of nails & hair
  3. Wearing clean clothes

c) Keeping diseases at bay

  1. Avoid street food
  2. Keep food containers covered
  3. Drink boiled water
  4. Wash fruits and vegetables in flowing water

d) Keeping living areas, surroundings and the environment clean

  1. Disposal of domestic organic waste on a daily basis and hazardous waste in designated places
  2. Regular sweeping, mopping and dusting
  3. Disinfection of toilets and bathing areas
  4. Avoid littering of public places
  5. Avoid spitting, urinating and defecating in public places

e) Conclusion – Hygiene – a collective exercise – everyone’s involvement and practice, a must – ensure community – health and happiness – celebrate life

a) Introduction

‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness’. This adage shows the importance of cleanliness. Cleanliness is important for healthy life. If we keep ourselves and our place clean we can avoid many diseases. Through the practice of the proper cleanliness we can keep ourselves physically and mentally clean, which really makes us good, civilized and healthy human beings. Cleanliness brings feeling of physically, mentally and socially well-being and helps to make good personality and thus good impression on others.

b) Personal Hygiene

Our personal hygiene is important. Most of the time we neglect this. We should wash our hands frequently and regular bathing is necessary to maintain our hygiene. Then brushing of teeth should be done every day before we take our first food. Cutting of nails an hair is also essential. We should always wear clean clothes.

c) Keeping diseases at bay

We should keep the diseases away from us. For this we should follow certain rules. We should avoid junk food though they may be tasty. Our food should be kept in closed containers. We should drink only boiled water. Fruits and vegetables should be washed in flowing water before using

d) Keeping living areas, surroundings and the environment clean

Our living areas and surroundings should be kept clean. Domestic organic waste should be disposed of on daily basis. The health hazardous waste should be kept in the designated places so that it would not disturb anyone. Our area should be swept, moped and dusted regularly. Disinfection lotion should be used in the toilets and bathing area. Littering of public places should be avoided. We should avoid spitting, urinating and defecating in public places.

e) Conclusion

Hygiene is a collective responsibility and it is a collective exercise. Everyone’s involvement is needed. If we can ensure a healthy and happy community we can celebrate our life.

Suggested Topics:

1. Importance of Physical Exercises / Sports & Games

Health is wealth. We keep guards to protect our wealth from thieves. Similarly we should protect our health from disease. Physical exercise guards our health. Good health is impossible without proper exercise. Physical exercise prevents the attack of disease. There are some diseases which can be cured through physical exercise.

Different people do different exercises. It depends upon their physical constitution and their likings. Morning walk and evening walk are recommended for all. But those who have weak constitution are advised not to go for gymnastics.Free-hand exercises can be easily practiced by all. In villages, some rural sports are played. Those include kho-kho, kabadi, monkey-dance on trees etc. Young boys climb trees to collect fruits. These kinds of games and habits serve for exercises. Boating and riding are also good examples of exercise. Playing football, hockey and cricket in school and college has become very popular. In old age, people should adopt morning walk in order to keep themselves active.

Mental work has increased for modern man. He does more mental work and less physical work. In this way he ruins his body. He becomes an easy victim to different ailments. Only physical exercise can help him in being healthy. It is a matter of grief that the scope for physical exercise is gradually decreasing. Students are busy in preparing for competitive examinations. They are not paying attention to their health. They believe that only good food can keep them healthy. But it is a wrong idea. They can be healthy and strong” in true sense, if they do regular physical exercise.

Swami Vivekanada says, “you can be nearer to God by playing football rather than by reading the Gita”.

2. Travel and its Benefits

While travelling we have first hand knowledge about the place we are travelling. We actually see the place with our own eyes, and its memory stays with us throughout our life. For example reading about Ooty may be entertaining and appealing, but visiting Ooty in person will surely be thousand times more entertaining and gratifying. Standing on the tallest peak Doddabetta, roaming in the botanical garden, boat ride in the Pykara lake, visit to tea and coffee plantations, etc. will fill you with ineffable thrill.

Traveling is wonderful in many ways. As we travel we meet more new people, and come across different cultures, and lifestyles. With all the newness in our life, we are also opened to new insights, outlook and perception of the world and living, which often gives us a new purpose for our lives. While travelling, we have to be prepared for unplanned emergencies and schedules. We have to make arrangements for our travelling, lodging and boarding. This makes us more organized and self-reliant.

At home we are always living in the cocoon of comfort, luxuries, and protection among our loving and caring family members; we generally take them for granted. We are usually not appreciative of their love for us. However, when we spend time away from home, especially in a place where we don’t have the same luxuries readily available to us, we become more aware and appreciative of the luxuries we have back at home.

While travelling we find our general outlook on life widened exceptionally; we realize that this vast world is our home and we become more conscious of how we can harmoniously live and support one another. And in that knowingness and state of consciousness, we extend our sympathy and support to the less privileged. While travelling we make new friends at the new place and carry their memories home. Thus, travelling makes the inhabitants interconnected. We start feeling ourselves as members of one big family of mankind living on one home planet. This makes life more wonderful.

In conclusion it can be said that travelling is one of the most precious gifts of life, and we must relish it and enjoy its sundry life-transforming benefits.

“The world is a book and those who do not travel read only one page” – Augustine

3. Water Conservation

Water is a precious gift from Mother Nature to all the living beings on earth. We all understand the importance of water in our lives and could not imagine life without water. Human beings, animals, trees, plants, insects, and other living things depend on water for survival.

The balance of water on earth is maintained through the process of rain and evaporation. Threefourth surface of the earth is covered by water; however it contains very less percentage of the clean water which is fit for human use. So, the problem is with the scarcity of clean water and if the quantity of clean water decreases then it might create major issues in future. We should join our hands together and take a pledge of using water according to the need without wasting it. We should also avoid the contamination of water by not throwing medicines or oils in water outlets. We should save water from being polluted and avoid the mixing of industrial wastes into the water. There should be proper waste management system which must be followed by everyone.

In conclusion clean water is a very essential component of life, so we need to conserve water for the future safety. Clean water is not only a necessity of human beings but it is also important for the survival of other species. If we save water we will also be helping other species to survive on earth and help preserve the biodiversity of a place.

“To a thirsty man, a drop of water is worth more than a sack of gold.”

4. Child Labour

Child labour has become a biggest social issue in India which needs to be solved on regular basis. It is not the responsibility of the government only. It should be solved and eliminated by all the parents, employers and other social organizations. It is the issue concerning everyone which should be solved personally as it can happen with the child of any person.

In many developing countries child labour is very common because of the existence of high level of poverty and poor schooling opportunities for the children. The highest incidence rate of the child labour is still more than 50 percent in which children of age group 5 to 14 are working in the developing country. The rate of child labour is high in the agricultural field which is mostly found in the rural and informal urban economy where most of the children are predominantly employed into the agriculture work by their own parents instead of sending them to the school and keeping them free to play with friends.

The issue of the child labour has now been an international concern as it alarmingly leads to crippling the growth and development of the country.

Healthy children are the bright future and power of any country. Thus child labour is damaging, spoiling and destroying the future of the children and finally the country.

“Little ones are destroyed when child labour is employed.”

5. Mobile Phone – Advantages & Disadvantages

Now a days, the mobile phone plays a major role in our lives, which brings many benefits to us but also contains some drawbacks. Generally, the mobile phone brings about a lot of advantages. First of all, the mobile phone is considered the quickest means of communication in our daily life. We can contact easily our friends and our relatives wherever they are by calling or sending messages. Second, the mobile phone is also a means of entertainment for people. We can listen to music and play games on mobile phone. Moreover, by using the latest apps for smart phones, we can access the internet to watch film and check our profile in social networks and update our status wherever we are. If we have a smartphone in hand, our studying becomes more effective such as looking up dictionary, and finding out many source of reference on internet which is useful for studying.

On the other hand, the mobile phone has also many disadvantages. First, telephone users become addicted to their mobile phone. Moreover, the ability of human communication is limited if the mobile phone is more present in some event such as class meetings, on the bus, in the park etc. Some people only focus on their phone without communicating. We should not use mobile phone while we are driving because it can cause traffic accidents.

In conclusion, mobile phone is necessary for our modern life today. However its usefulness depends on our ways of using it. It will be better if we use it for good purpose and in an appropriate time.

“Cell phones are so convenient that they’re an inconvenience.”

6. Consumerism – Wants & Needs

The basic needs of life are food, water, shelter, and oxygen. They are the four materials required for human life to be sustained. However, as the human mind has evolved more in the past century, people have become more materialistic, and wants have become a necessity. As life progresses, new and better materials come out, which the mind will latch onto as a want, and it will read that want as a need. People in the twentyfirst century are the guiltiest of all when it comes to be too materialistic, and it is becoming a major issue.

The human mind interprets information, and then does whatever it can do with that. When someone looks at an item after having used a previous version of it (an IPhone for example), most people will instantly think that they want it just because it is ‘better’ or just because it is new. The line between want and need is broken in most minds like this. Considering that the person just does not need a bigger screen to do the same tasks they did before, he could just bring it closer to his face. The line is not drawn just for electronics, but also for clothes, food, and any other luxury in the world. Granted that food is needed to survive, not all foods are needed. An example of that is someone choosing between salad and pizza, because most go for the greased up pile of bread and cheese instead of the nutrient rich salad (without dressing, of course). Wants and needs only come up just because there is some kind of material coming up now and then

If people are too drowned in this mindset it will take decades if not centuries to get out of it, and be back on track to the reality of its situation. People are buying goods they do not need, hoarding them for future use and then they are using luxuries that are to be better used elsewhere. Minds in this country are forgetting what the true meanings are there for want and need, switching around wants to the word need, and then throwing the reality away. Food, water, and shelter are what life needs, not an IPhone, and people should realize this.

A brand is nothing but an expression of the customer’s loyalty and trust – Phil Dusenberg

7. Value of Education

Education is a must for both men and women equally as both together make a healthy and educated society. It is an essential tool for getting bright future and it plays a most important role in the development and progress of the country. Citizens of the country become responsible for the better future and development of the country. Highly educated people become the base of the developed country. So, proper education makes the bright future of both, the individual and the country. It is only educated leaders who build the nation and lead it to the height of success and progress. Education makes people as perfect and noble as possible.

Good education gives many purposes to the life of a person such as enhancement of the personal advancement, increasing social status, maintaining social health and economical progress, success to the nation. It makes us set goals of life, and creates awareness towards many social issues and gives solutions to solve environmental problems and other related issues. Now-a-days, education has become very simple and easy because of the implementation of distance learning programmes. Modern education system is fully capable of removing the social issues of illiteracy and inequality among people of different race, religion and caste.

Education develops the people’s minds to a great level and helps in removing all the differences in the society. It makes us become a good learner and understand every aspect of life. It provides opportunities to understand all the human rights, social rights, duties and responsibilities towards country.

The roots of education are bitter but the fruit is sweeter – Aristotle

8. Value based Education

India is badly in need of Value Based Education and Teaching System which inculcates among the young students values that they need to imbibe within them.

Value based education imparts social and moral values, integrity, character, spirituality and many more. It builds the qualities of humility, strength and honesty in a person. They become better citizens of a country. People with high ethical values will never cheat others. People are taught to co-operate with each other.

Value Based Education is the only means which can give to our young the right direction. It is only at the level of the primary education that such lessons need to begin. If the impressionable mind once gets set to noble goals difficult would it to lead him astray. It is not merely talking about great men that the child would get oriented to values; the teacher has to play a major and a decisive role in giving this lesson by precept as well as by example. It is the intellectual, the physical, the emotional, the psychological parts of the child’s personality which would need to be moulded and modeled.

Value based teachings and education are the fields, in which the first teacher is the mother. It is the mother who tends to teach the first lessons and it is on her that rests the foundation-laying responsibility. She teaches what is right, what is wrong, what is true, what is false, what is respectable and noble and what is not – it is the mother who imparts these lessons. It is the mother who teaches her child to remain honest. This is how slowly and gradually, step by step the moral lessons can be taught. Education without values is a body without soul.

“The roots of education are bitter but the fruit is sweeter” – Aristotle.

Task 1

Write an essay of about 200 words each.

1. The Profession you would like to choose

In olden days, choosing a profession was not at all a cause of worry. A farmer’s son became a farmer, a potter’s son a potter, a king’s son a king and so on. But in the modern era, it is skill and knowledge, not the caste or community of a person which decides what profession to choose.

The choice of a right profession is one of the most dreadful tasks a child has to face in his transition from childhood to adolescence. My desire is to become a software engineer when I grow up. My interest in this field has been since my primary school days. I have always had a fascination for computers. I love playing computer games very much. It was this interest in computer games that sparked off my curiosity about how software code is written, how graphics and animation are done. The basic skill required for a software engineer is to have a sense of logic, commonsense and a mind that can think in many dimensions simultaneously and the knack of solving problems.

I am well aware of the pros and cons of becoming an IT engineer. A software professional has to work under tremendous pressure, work late nights and has to meet almost impossible deadlines, He might get no time for family and friends. And as one moves up the ladder, the pressure would only increase.

On the brighter side, this job provides the best salary in the industry. Apart from regular salary hikes, one also gets ample opportunity to travel abroad and in the process makes a lot of money. More than the money, there are a lot of learning opportunities. Also there is a deep sense of satisfaction in helping to build systems that make people’s lives easier.

My plan is to do my bachelor and master degrees in engineering from the best engineering college in the country and then bag a job in a reputed company like Microsoft or Google. .Hope that god willing, everything turns out fine and I get a chance to pursue the career of my choice and live the life of my dreams.

Success depends on judicious choice.

2. The importance of a balanced diet

A balanced diet is a key to healthy lifestyle. A balanced diet should contain all right foods in right quantities like carbohydrates, high fiber content, water, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. If you want to lead a healthy lifestyle, eating healthy food is crucial. A balanced diet is not all about eating the right food, but having it at correct time in right proportions. The following article will deal with the importance of a balanced diet for a healthy lifestyle.

Fluids are very essential for human body to lead healthy lifestyle. Nearly 80% of human cell is filled by water; water is a co-factor in many of the metabolic activities and reaction.

We should maximize the intake of fresh fruits and vegetables which will help avoid many health disorders. Our balanced diet should contain all five elements which are bitter, pungent, sour, sweet, and salty. Avoid eating processed food and packed food which may wipe out nutrients. Healthy eating starts with smart eating. Most people do not recognize the importance of chewing as it is essential to digest many of components.

We should make sure that we eat slowly rather than swallowing. We must avoid eating when we don’t have appetite, and if we want to stay active and healthy. Excess food may lead to overweight in the long run.

We should avoid eating while working or watching TV which could disturb our concentration. It may lead to heartburn and colitis, if we eat with stress. If we want to know more about health, we can read health related magazines and search through various health related websites.

Having a balanced diet is like breathing fresh air.

3. A memorable journey

The most memorable journey I have enjoyed is the train journey towards New Delhi. It is a two – day journey from Madurai. During last summer vacation, with my parents and my uncle, I went by train, which explored deep insight into the different cultures and languages of the people. As soon as I occupied the seat, two passengers seated across engaged me in a lively conversation. They were from Kerala and talked about their purpose of visit. On the way, the train stopped at Vijayawada. I had an occasion to have a chat with a few Telugu – speaking people. I saw some of them dressed in a different style. They were very polite and kind to me.

I was extremely happy when the train passed through Nagpur, where I bought delicious oranges. Though I could not understand Hindi, I talked with them in Tamil. With a smile, one of the vendors thrust oranges in my hands. I accepted them and gave some money that pleased him. At the end of the second day, we reached New Delhi. The journey broadened my knowledge about our country.

A long journey is an everlasting experience

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