12th English : The Summit
Unit 4.1 > The Summit
Adventures, expeditions and explorations are always exciting. Especially when they are real and if it is the first of its kind, it is even more thrilling. The only question that comes to one’s mind is what makes one to take up such tasks that involve high risks. It is the spirit of formidable adventure and certain qualities which make them achieve such feats. Adventures, expeditions and explorations are always exciting. Especially when they are real and if it is the first of its kind, it is even more thrilling. The only question that comes to one’s mind is what makes one to take up such tasks that involve high risks. It is the spirit of formidable adventure and certain qualities which make them achieve such feats
Tick the qualities that are required to achieve such a feat.
- Ib – pound (a unit for measuring weight, equal to 0.454 of a kilogram)
- rope – links members of climbing party for safety; a party may be referred to as “a rope”
- cornice – overhanging mass of snow or ice along a ridge, shaped like the curling crest of a wave
- cwm – an enclosed arm-chair-shaped hollow situated at the head of a valley
- scrambling – climbing hurriedly on hands and knees
- wriggle – to move with a twist or turn
- traverse – to cross a mountain slope horizontally or diagonally; the name given to such a crossing
- tantalize – tease or taunt
- cramponed – climbing on ice wearing spike shoes
1. Based on your reading of the text answer the following questions in one or two sentences.
a) What did Hillary do with his wet boots?
Hillary cooked the boots on the stove to remove the frozen ice from them
b) Name an equipment and a tool carried by the climbers during their expedition.
Oxygen cylinder and ice-axe are carried by the climber during their expedition.
c) Why did Hillary become clumsy-fingered and slow-moving?
The oxygen was running out so he became clumsy-fingered and slow-moving.
d) What did Hillary find in a tiny hollow?
Hillary found two oxygen cylinders left by the previous climbers.
e) When did Hillary feel a sense of freedom and well being?
When Hillary removed the oxygen cylinder he felt a sense of freedom and well-being.
f) What did Hillary mean by saying “We had had enough to do the job, but by no means too much”?
When they reached their tent they had to do a lot of work but because of the sense of success the work did not seem to be much.
2. Answer the following questions in two or three sentences each.
a) How did the mountaineers belay?
The mountaineers tied a rope around all the mountaineers and the other end of the rope was attached to a rock.
b) Why was the original zest fading away?
The time was passing and the ridge seemed never ending. They were a little tired. So the original zest was fading away.
c) What did Edmund Hillary do to escape the large overhanging ice cornices?
To escape the large overhanging cornices, Hillary cut a line of steps down to where the snow met the rocks on the west.
d) What did Tenzing and Edmund Hillary gift to the Gods of lofty Summit? How did they do it?
Tenzing gifted to God a bar of chocolate, a packet of biscuits and a handful of lollies. Edmund Hillary gifted to God the crucifix given by Colonel Hunt.
e) What did the photograph portray?
The photograph portrayed the North ridge, showing the North Col and the old route which had been made famous by the struggles of those great climbers of the 1920’s and 1930’s.
f) The soft snow was difficult and dangerous. Why?
The soft snow was not firm to get foot-hold. It might slip or it might give way under the foot. So the soft snow was difficult and dangerous.
g) How did the firm snow at the higher regions fill them with hope?
The firm snow gave them good foot-hold. They could cut steps up the last steep slopes and they could walk with the crampon shoes to the South Peak. It filled them with hope.
3. Based on the text, answer the following questions in a paragraph in about 100–150 words each.
a) How did Hillary and Tenzing prepare themselves before they set off to the summit? (Para 1, 2 and 3)
A few good deep breaths and we were ready to go.
Still a little worried about my cold feet, I asked Tenzing to move off.
The well-organized expedition was launched in the spring of 1953, and a high camp from which to reach the summit was established by mid-May. After a pair of climbers failed to reach the top on May 27, Hillary and Tenzing set out for it early on May 29; by late morning they were standing on the summit. Hillary and Tenzing drank lemon juice and got ready for the journey. They tested the oxygen cylinders. Hillary’s boots were frozen with cold. He kept them over the fire to soften them. They put on three pairs of gloves on their hands – silk, woolen and windproof and windproof over their body. At 6.30 they moved out of the tent with their oxygen cylinders on them. They kept the cylinders on their back, connected the mask and turned the valves. They took a few good deep breaths and were ready for the expedition.
Life begins at the end of comfort zone..
b) Give an account of the journey to the South Col from 28,000 feet. (Para 4 to 8)
I continued making the trail on up the ridge,
leading up for the last 400 feet to the southern summit.
The well-organized expedition was launched in the spring of 1953, and a high camp from which to reach the summit was established by mid-May. After a pair of climbers failed to reach the top on May 27, Hillary and Tenzing set out for it early on May 29; by late morning they were standing on the summit. Tenzing paved steps towards the ridge and they reached the top of ridge which was about 28000 feet. The snow was soft over the ridge and it made their route dangerous. After several hundred feet they came to a hollow. There they found two oxygen cylinders which had been left by Evans and Bourdillon on their previous attempt. Hillary was happy to find that the cylinders had hundreds of litters of oxygen which they could use for the downward journey. They continued their journey though the snow was a little dangerous. With some difficulties they reached firmer snow higher up. They cut steps on the last steep slopes and walked on with their spike shoes to the South Peak. It was then 9 a.m.
If it scares you, it might be a good thing to try
c) Describe the feelings of Edmund Hillary and Tenzing as they reached the top of the Summit. (Para 18)
My first feelings were of relief– relief that there were no more steps to cut,
no more ridges to traverse, and no more humps to tantalize us with hopes of success.
The well-organized expedition was launched in the spring of 1953, and a high camp from which to reach the summit was established by mid-May. After a pair of climbers failed to reach the top on May 27, Hillary and Tenzing set out for it early on May 29; by late morning they were standing on the summit. The ridge seemed to be never ending. They had to cut hump after hump to move forward. Their original enthusiasm gave place to some great struggle. They saw a narrow snow ridge going up to the top. They made few more beating of the ice axe and they reached the top. They felt relieved from the troublesome journey. They shook hands and embraced each other. It was 11.30. They saw some unclimbed peaks like Makalu, Kanchenjunga and some more peaks in Nepal.
Fill your life with adventures not things that have stories to tell, not stuff to show
d) The ridge had taken us two and half hours, but it seemed like lifetime. Why? (Para 15 to 17)
Our original zest had now quite gone, and it was turning more into a grim struggle.
The well-organized expedition was launched in the spring of 1953, and a high camp from which to reach the summit was established by mid-May. After a pair of climbers failed to reach the top on May 27, Hillary and Tenzing set out for it early on May 29; by late morning they were standing on the summit. To their east side there was a large cornice and a crack was between the cornice and the rock. Tenzing was holding Hillary with the rope and Hillary entered the crack and lifted his body off the ground. Using the power of his whole body Hillary moved backward up the crack. He moved slowly but steadily. Tenzing was leaving the rope and Hillary was moving inch by inch to reach the top of the rock. Then slowly he came out of the crack and reached a wide ledge. Now he felt that nothing would stop him from reaching the top. He stood on the ledge and signaled Tenzing to come up. Tenzing somehow came through the crack and reached the ledge. The ridge seemed to be never ending.
Life is made for good friends and great adventures.
e) Describe the view from the top. What was the most important photograph? (Para 19 and 20)
After ten minutes, I realized that I was becoming rather clumsy-fingered and slow-moving. The well-organized expedition was launched in the spring of 1953, and a high camp from which to reach the summit was established by mid-May. After a pair of climbers failed to reach the top on May 27, Hillary and Tenzing set out for it early on May 29; by late morning they were standing on the summit. They saw in the east the unexplored and unclimbed Makalu. The great part of Kanchenjunga was seen in the horizon. To the west they could see the unexplored ranges of Nepal. The most important photograph showed the North ridge, showing the North Col and the old route which had been made famous by the struggles of those great climbers of the 1920’s and 1930’s.
Life is meant to taste the daring adventure.
f) ‘There is no height, no depth that the spirit of man, guided by higher spirit cannot attain’. Discuss the above statement in the context of the achievement of Edmund Hillary and Tenzing.
For a few moments I lay regaining my breath, and for the first time really felt the fierce
determination that nothing now could stop us reaching the top.
The well-organized expedition was launched in the spring of 1953, and a high camp from which to reach the summit was established by mid-May. After a pair of climbers failed to reach the top on May 27, Hillary and Tenzing set out for it early on May 29; by late morning they were standing on the summit. From 1920 onwards many famous climbers tried to climb Mount Everest. They went closer to the goal but they did not achieve this. But Hillary and Tenzing reached Everest summit. At 11:30 a.m. on May 29, 1953, Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay, a Sherpa of Nepal, became the first explorers to reach the summit of Mount Everest, which at 29,035 feet above sea level is the highest point on earth. They too had the same difficulty and danger faced by the previous climbers. Hillary and Tenzing with full hope moved forward facing all the hardships. In some places they had soft snow and they might give way under their foot. But they proceeded further and reached the top. This shows that if man has high spirit he can achieve anything in this world.
Life is meant to taste the daring adventure.
i) Given below are some idiomatic expressions with their meanings. Understand the meaning
- wait for the dust to settle – to wait for a situation to become clear or certain
- get/have all your ducks in a row – to have made all the preparations needed to do something / to be well organized
- fetch and carry (for somebody) – to do a lot of little jobs for somebody as if you were their servant
- do the math – to think carefully about something before doing it, so that you know all the relevant facts or figures
- round the corner – very near
ii) Fill in the blanks with the right idioms. Choose from the above given idioms.
a) The Sherpas are cheerful, gallant men, who________________ tents, oxygen, food etc., for climbers during their ascent of the summit.
Ans ; fetch and carry
b) The team _______________ carefully so as to reach the summit successfully.
Ans ; does the math
c) When they had to climb through deep new snow the party sometimes had to _________________.
Ans ; wait for the dust to settle
d) Each member of the team had all their _________________.
Ans ; get all their ducks in a row.
e) We could not believe that with a few more whacks of the ice axe in the firm snow we were _________________ to the top.
Ans ; round the corner
iii) Understand the meaning of the given idiomatic expression and choose the right one to complete the sentence.
the icing on the cake – something extra and not essential, but is added to make it even better
break the ice – to make people more relaxed, especially at the beginning of the meeting
a) The conference room was silent though packed. The chairman introduced an interactive session to _____________________________.
Ans ; break the ice
b) Our headmistress not only promised us to take us for an excursion, but also announced that on return we would get a holiday. It was like__________________________.
Ans ; the icing on the cake.
i) Given below are the phrasal verbs with their meanings. Use the given phrasal verbs in sentences of your own.
|turn on – to open||took over – took lead|
|set off – start a journey||put off – postpone|
- My manager turned on a new account with the bank.
- The son took over the company from his father.
- During our last summer we set off to Ooty.
- The match was put off due to rain.
ii) Given below are some Phrasal Verbs which are frequently used in connection with travelling. Guess the meaning and match.
|see off||start off / to begin a journey|
|stop over||to go to station or airport to say good bye to someone|
|set off||to stay at a place for a short period of time when travelling to another destination|
|Ans ; 1 – b, 2 – c, 3 – a|
|get in||leave a bus, train etc.,|
|get off||to go away from home for a vacation|
|get on||arrive inside train, bus etc.|
|get away||enter a bus, train, plane.|
|Ans ; 1 – d, 2 – a, 3 – c. 4 – b|
|check in||pay the bill when leaving a hotel|
|check out||arrive and register at airport or hotel|
|Ans ; 1 – b, 2 – a|
i) Here are some compound words chosen from the text.
Let us learn a few more with their meaning.
- ice-berg – an extremely large mass of ice floating in the sea
- ice-cap – a layer of ice permanently covering parts of the earth, especially around North and South Poles
- ice-floe – a large area of ice floating in the sea
- ice-sheet – a layer of ice that covers a large area of land for a long period of time
- ice-rink – specially prepared flat surface of ice, where you can ice-skate;
- snow-board – sports
- snow-mobile – transportation
- snow-chains – machinery
- snow-storm – weather
- snow-bird – travel
- snow-belt – geography
First, read the following statements. Then, listen to the passage read aloud by your teacher or played on the recorder and complete the statements. You may listen to it again, if required. Complete the following.
a) List any three aspects which contributed to the success of the ascent of the summit.
- work of previous climbers
- careful and thorough planning
- excellence of our equipment
b) Without the help of ____________ nothing would have been possible.
Ans ; Sherpas
c) The main idea of the passage is ______________.
Ans ; requirement of mountain climbing.
d) The biggest thing of all is ___________.
Ans ; working together
e) ____________________ were cheerful and gallant men.
Ans ; Edmund Hillary and Tenzing
i) Have you ever been on an adventurous trip? If so, share your success story with your friends.
I am very much interested in adventurous trip. As I am a school student I cannot have big adventures. Once I had a chance to go on trekking to Yercaud. From Salem it is a 10 kilometre trip and the height is 3000 feet. We had to walk through the forest area so we had to get permission from the Forest Department. 15 students with one of our teachers started our trip at 8. O’clock in the morning. Certain area was tough to climb. It was very exciting to go through the forest. On the way we came to a small falls and we took a bath. We all reached the top at 1pm. We had lunch there and came down in the bus.
ii) How will you organise or plan for a trip or an event? Do you have the habit of preparing a check-list? Discuss.
I have to consult the people concerned and decide the place and date. Then I should get permission from the authorities concerned. First I should talk to my principal about the trip and convince him to give permission. If I go into the sea I should get ready with proper dress and foot wear. I have to get the boat of the required size for the trip. At least one or two good swimmers should accompany us. Not to miss any small item I will prepare a check list as per the need of the trip. One day before the trip I will check the list to my satisfaction.
Given below are a few proverbs. Prepare a short speech of two minutes on one of the proverbs.
a) Nothing is impossible:-
The word ‘impossible’ itself spells, ‘I’m possible’. Napoleon Bonaparte once remarked that the word ‘impossible’ is found only in the dictionary of fools”. In this world, everything is possible on the basis of will power, dogged determination and sacrifice. To accomplish the most difficult tasks, you need to put in a lot of hard work, extra perseverance and concentration on a single objective. You should have patience and faith in yourself. You should have determination, dedication and devotion to attain success. Never bother about the results. Keep on going even if the pace is slow. Just ensure it remains steady. You are bound to face obstacles en route to success, but with courage and perseverance, you can master them. Your positive attitude and clear frame of mind determine your future. In this world, there is no such thing as CHANGE. By your own ideas, will and ability, you can create a number of chances, circumstances and the desired atmosphere to achieve the toughest goal.
b) Where there is a will, there is a way:-
Generally, all of us have a goal in life which we work to achieve; however, the final goal is achieved only by the people who have strong will power and work hard with complete dedication. Will power is necessary to create a way of surety of achieving the goal in life. Most of the people do not succeed in life as they don’t have strong determination and will towards achieving the goal. The meaning of this English proverb ‘Where there is a will there is a way’ is when we have strong will to get something in life surely we get that in future. Most of the people who are not determined towards their goal generally tend to curse their fate or misfortune. But the fact of getting failure in life is that we don’t have will and dedication towards the task. We should blame ourselves and our negligence only and not our fortune. Having wish to get something is not enough; we have to work actively in right direction with strong will power.
c) Together we can achieve more:-
“Together we can achieve more”… This adage holds true to any organization. You might say it is a simple phrase, but there is so much more to it. Let me tell you how we can achieve success. A team with good communication, commitment, and excellent teamwork will certainly succeed. There is no doubt. First, we have to envision our goals and make each member of the team understand the common goal. Communication is vital in every step. We should collaborate with others. Every member will be delegated a task. In delegating tasks, we focus on individual strengths and expertise. Each person puts his heart in his tasks and builds good working relationship along the way. As long as we have the 4 C’s – Communication, Commitment, Collaboration and conviction, we will continue to succeed and deliver quality service.
Here are a few instructions given by a Health Inspector to a group of students, in order to prevent malaria and dengue. Complete the series adding some more important instructions.
- Do not allow water to stagnate in and around your house.
- Keep your surroundings clean.
- Wear long-sleeved shirts / blouses and long pants / skirts that cover your arms and legs.
- Do not litter the place with wastes.
- Divide the waste into perishable and non-perishable and put them in the proper place.
Now, write a set of 8 to 10 instructions for the following situations.
1. A doctor instructing a patient regarding a healthy diet and proper care after a surgery.
- Take vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat dairy products.
- Include lean meat, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts.
- Limit saturated and trans fats, sodium, and added sugars.
- Avoid canned food items.
- Eat grains that contain 1,200–1,500 calories each day which will help most women lose weight safely.
- Eat grains that contain 1,500–1,800 calories each day suitable for men and for women who weigh more or who exercise regularly.
- After surgery closely follow the doctor’s advice.
- Do not eat spicy food.
- Control your movements on the cot.
- Take prescribed medicine properly.
2. A traffic police personnel to the public, as to how to move around in safety, in crowded public places during festival seasons.
- Make sure you know where the exits are.
- Don’t wear loose clothes or accessories that could become tangled.
- Avoid standing on or near structures that could collapse.
- Walk around the crowds rather than pushing through them.
- Leave early or late to avoid the rush when the event is over.
- If you’re caught in a moving crowd, walk sideways or diagonally across it to work your way.
- Try to carry only your identification, cash, and one credit card.
- Choose a purse with zipper, button, or clasp closures, and a strap that hangs across your body.
- Keep a diligent eye on your children.
- Dress your group alike or in bright-colored, unique clothing.
- Remind younger children to avoid strangers, and help them identify police officers or officials to go to when lost.
- Place your phone number in your child’s pocket in case you’re separated.
- Keep your phone charged and on. Program it to vibrate as well as ring.
3. A mother to her children, on safety measures to be taken before leaving home on vacation.
|v Close the doors properly.||v Leave one or two lights on.|
|v Clean your garbage disposal.||v Mute your phone’s ringer.|
|v Unplug small appliances.||v Do a faucet check.|
|v Clean standing toilet water.||v Leave the kitchen clean.|
On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes in any appropriate format.
The Sherpas were nomadic people who first migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago, through the Nangpa La pass and settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. These nomadic people then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. During 14th century, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called “Shyar Khamba”. The inhabitants of Shyar Khamba, were called Sherpa. Sherpa migrants travelled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalayas. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today.
Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains and they spoke their own language. AngDawa, a 76-year-old former mountaineer recalled “My first expedition was to Makalu [the world’s fifth highest mountain] with Sir Edmund Hillary’’. We were not allowed to go to the top. We wore leather boots that got really heavy when wet, and we only got a little salary, but we danced the Sherpa dance, and we were able to buy firewood and make campfires, and we spent a lot of the time dancing and singing and drinking. Today Sherpas get good pay and good equipment, but they don’t have good entertainment. My one regret is that I never got to the top of Everest. I got to the South Summit, but I never got a chance to go for the top.
The transformation began when the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Edmund Hillary scaled Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary took efforts to build schools and health clinics to raise the living standards of the Sherpas. Thus life in Khumbu improved due to the efforts taken by Edmund Hillary and hence he was known as ‘Sherpa King’.
Sherpas working on the Everest generally tend to perish one by one, casualties of crevasse falls, avalanches, and altitude sickness. Some have simply disappeared on the mountain, never to be seen again. Apart from the bad seasons in 1922, 1970 and 2014 they do not die en masse. Sherpas carry the heaviest loads and pay the highest prices on the world’s tallest mountain. In some ways, Sherpas have benefited from the commercialization of the Everest more than any group, earning income from thousands of climbers and trekkers drawn to the mountain. While interest in climbing Everest grew gradually over the decades after the first ascent, it wasn’t until the 1990s that the economic motives of commercial guiding on Everest began. This leads to eclipse the amateur impetus of traditional mountaineering. Climbers looked after each other for the love of adventure and “the brotherhood of the rope” now are tending to mountain businesses. Sherpas have taken up jobs as guides to look after clients for a salary. Commercial guiding agencies promised any reasonably fit person a shot at Everest
Life of Sherpas
I. Nomadic Sherpas migrated from Tibet to Nepal
- 600 years ago
- 4 Sherpa clans – Minyaagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa, Chawa
II. Little contact beyond mountains
- have their own language
- have no opportunity to reach the top
- carry things for others
- Edmund Hillary the ‘Sherpa King’
III. Sherpas die in mountain casualties
- carry heaviest loads
- earn money from climbers
- 1990s commercial guiding on Everest
Pick out the finite verbs in the following sentences.
a) You can solve this problem in different ways.
Ans ; can solve
b) The professor has been working on the last chapter of the book since March.
Ans ; has been working
c) Despite being a celebrity, Ravi mingles easily with everyone.
Ans ; mingles
d) You must speak clearly to make yourself understood.
Ans ; must speak
e) The chairman being away, the clerk is unable to approve the proposal.
Ans ; is
f) Getting down from the car, the Chief Guest walked towards the dais amidst applause.
Ans ; walked
g) The old man struggled to walk without support.
Ans ; struggled
h) In case of emergency, please contact this number.
Ans ; contact
i) The sun having set, the temperature fell rapidly.
Ans ; fell
j) But for your help, I could not have completed the assignment.
Ans ; could not have completed
Read the following passage and identify the simple sentences.
Sunflowers turn according to the position of the sun. In other words, they ‘chase the light’. Have you ever wondered what happens on cloudy, rainy days when the sun is completely covered by clouds? If you think the sunflower withers or turns its head towards the ground, you are completely mistaken. Do you know what happens? Sunflowers turn to each other to share their energy. Learning from Nature, we too should support and empower each other.
Look at the following complex sentences. Find main clauses and the Subordinate clauses.
a) Nobody knows when the power supply will resume.
- Main clauses : Nobody knows
- Subordinate : when the power supply will resume.
b) Please tell me what the time is.
- Main clauses : Please tell me
- Subordinate : what the time is.
c) The man who directed the film was my schoolmate.
- Main clauses : The man, film was my schoolmate.
- Subordinate : who directed the
d) I believe that all men are basically good.
- Main clauses : I believe
- Subordinate : that all men are basically good.
e) No one knows when he will return
- Main clauses : No one knows
- Subordinate : when he will return
Pick out the complex sentences in the following passage.
A man saw a lion in the bush, as he was walking through the forest. He did not know what to do. He was helpless. He was too scared to turn around and run. He just knelt down as if he were getting ready to pray. He closed his eyes, thinking that the lion would pounce on him anytime. Out of the corner of his eye, he saw the lion on its knees too. Shocked, he asked the lion what it was doing. The lion replied that he was praying before he started his meal.
Two Main clauses connected by a conjunction form a compound sentence.
Identify the two Main clauses and conjunction in each of the following sentences.
a) It started raining suddenly and people ran for shelter.
- It started raining suddenly
- people ran for shelter
conjunction – and
b) Understand the concept well, otherwise you cannot solve the problem.
- understand the concept well
- you cannot solve the problem
conjunction – otherwise
c) Fifty candidates appeared for the interview, but only five were selected.
- Fifty candidates appeared for the interview
- only five were selected
conjunction – but
d) Ramesh did not know Spanish, so he wanted a translator.
- Ramesh did not know Spanish
- he wanted a translator
conjunction – so
e) He is a good actor, still he is not popular.
- He is a good actor
- he is not popular
conjunction – still
Pick out the compound sentences in the following passage
The food we eat has to be digested and then thrown out of the body. The air we breathe in, has to be thrown out, to help us survive. But we hold negative emotions like insecurity, anger and jealousy within ourselves for years. If these negative emotions are not eliminated, the mind grows corrupt and diseased. Let us do away with hatred and lead a healthy life filled with peace and joy
Complete the sentences choosing the right endings.
|We were thoroughly disappointed||to find out his address|
|Hardly had he stepped out||we could not go further|
|They wanted||since our team did not get a prize|
|Since we had run out of petrol||was his reckless driving|
|The cause of his injury||when it began to rain|
|Ans ; 1 – c, 2 – e, 3 – a, 4 – b, 5 – d|
Read the following sentences and fill in the blanks
a. If I ………..(be) a spider, I …….. (weave) webs.
Ans ; were, would weave
b. If Raj ………(be) a sculptor, he ……… (make) beautiful idols.
Ans ; were, would makemake
c. If Mary had an umbrella, she………. (lend) it to me.
Ans ; would lend
d. Rex would have played with me, if he ……..(has) time.
Ans ; had had
e. If I were you, I ……(accept) this offer.
Ans ; would accept
f. We …… (select) story books for kids, if we allot time for storytelling.
Ans ; will select
g. The Education Minister …… (visit) our school tomorrow, if he goes by this way.
Ans ; will visit
h. You will be rewarded by the wise, if you …….(stand) for truth.
Ans ; stand
i. If my mother ……(know) of my poor performance in the exam, she will not allow me to watch a movie.
Ans ; knows
j. If I had won the lottery, I …… (donate) relief materials for the flood victims.
Ans ; would have donated
Rewrite the following sentences using ‘If’ without changing the meaning.
Example : Unless you go for a walk regularly, you cannot reduce your weight. (Use ‘If’)
If you do not go for a walk regularly, you cannot reduce your weight.
a) Sindhu would not have won the world championship, unless she had had single-minded
Sindhu would not have won the world championship if she had not had single-minded devotion.
b) You will not reach your goal, unless you chase your dream.
You will not reach your goal, if you do not chase your dream.
c) Unless we plant more trees, we cannot save our planet.
If we do not plant more trees, we cannot save our planet.
d) The rescue team would not have saved the victims unless they had received the call in time.
The rescue team would not have saved the victims if they had not received the call in time.
e) The palace cannot be kept clean, unless we appoint more people.
The palace cannot be kept clean if we do not appoint more people.
f) The portraits would not have been so natural unless the artist had given his best.
The portraits would not have been so natural if the artist had not given his best.
g) The manager would not have selected Nithiksha unless she exhibited good accounting skill.
The manager would not have selected Nithiksha if she had not exhibited good accounting skill.
h) The policeman would not have arrested the man unless he had violated the rules.
The policeman would not have arrested the man if he had not violated the rules.
i) Mr Kunaal would not sponsor my higher education unless I studied well.
Mr Kunaal would sponsor my higher education if I did not studied well.
j) Kavin will not stop flying kites unless he understands the risk involved in it.
Kavin will not stop flying kites if he does not understand the risk involved in it.
k) Tanya would not know the answer unless she referred to the answer key.
Tanya would know the answer if she refer to the answer key.
l) My village cannot achieve 100 % literacy rate, unless the elders of the village cooperate with the education department.
My village cannot achieve 100 % literacy rate, if the elders of the village do not cooperate with the education department.
- Summarizing is to briefly sum up the various points from the notes made from the original passage.
- Refer to the reading passage. You must have completed reading. Now go through the passage once again and refer to the notes made and do the summarizing.
The Sherpas were the first to migrate from Tibet and get settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. During 14th centrury, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region were called “Shyar Khamba” and the inhabitants of ShyarKhamba were called Sherpas. Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains. They were not allowed to go to the top. They got a low salary. Today Sherpas get good pay. The transformation began when the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and Hillary reached Everest in 1953. Life in Khumbu improved thanks to the efforts taken by Hillary and hence he was known as Sherpa King. Sherpas working on the Everest perish one by one because of natural disasters. In some ways Sherpas have benefitted from commercialisation of the Everest. They have taken up jobs as guides.
Interpreting non–verbal presentation
Trace the trekking trail to reach the summit with the given detail and write an interesting paragraph in about 100 words.
The Summit of Mount Everest
Khumbu Glacier was the base camp. It is at a height of 17500 feet. They had a short stop at 19400 feet and then proceeded to 20200. On the way they had ice fall and it gave some trouble to them. They continued their trekking and reached Western CWM which is at a height of 21200. This was their 4th stop. Then they took right turn and reached 22000. This led to their 6th place which is at a height of 23000 feet. To reach the 7th place they crossed Lhotse face. The 7th stop was 24000 feet high. They proceeded further and crossed Geneva Spur and reached the height of 26000 feet. Then they further moved and reached 27500. With great difficulty they reached South Summit which is at a height of 28700. Now they were closer to our goal. Then they reached the top which is above 29035 feet. They were successful in their mission.
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