Tamil Nadu 12th Standard English Book Answers | On the Rule of the Road

12th English : On the Rule of the Road

12th Standard English Book Unit 6.1 On the Rule of the Road Book Back Answers

Unit 6.1 > On the Rule of the Road

Warm up

a. From the pictures given below, identity the actions that may cause inconvenience and discomfort to others. Discuss.

Talking aloud on the mobile while there are people around you, may cause inconvenience to them. Listening to music and shouting and singing along with the voice may cause inconvenience to others. Using the phone while driving the car may result in accident.

b) Classify these pictures to show what they depict–Personal freedom/Public liberty

Personal freedomPublic liberty
Colouring the hair redClimbing up the mountain
Talking aloud on the mobileCycling through the forest
Listening to music and shouting
Using the phone while driving the car


  • confusion – mess
  • peril – risk
  • pedestrians – persons who walk on the streets
  • chaos – confusion
  • anarchy – lawlessness/ rebellion
  • preserved – maintained
  • curtailed – reduced
  • tyranny – autocracy
  • insolence – rudeness
  • interfere – hinder
  • contract – commitment
  • indifferent – unconcerned
  • fancy – desire
  • shandy – lemonade
  • ridiculous – comical
  • conventional – normal
  • accommodate – fit in with
  • consideration – scrutiny

1. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each.

a) Why did the lady think she was entitled to walk down the middle of the road?

The lady thought that she had liberty to walk wherever she liked.

b) What would be the consequence of the old lady’s action?

The old lady’s action would lead to a great confusion of the traffic. There was every possibility of risk to her life.

c) What does the ‘rule of the road’ mean?

The ‘rule of the road’ means that in order to preserve the liberties of all, the liberties of everybody must be curtailed.

d) Why should individual liberty be curtailed?

Individual liberty should be curtailed for a social order.

e) How would a reasonable person react when his actions affect other person’s liberty?

A reasonable person would reflect that if the policeman did not interfere with him he would interfere with no one and the result would be utter chaos.

f) Define ‘liberty’ as perceived by the author.

The author defines liberty as a social contract. It is an accommodation of interests.

g) According to the author, what are we more conscious of?

We are more conscious of the imperfections of others in the case of accommodating individual liberty to the liberty of others.

h) What is the foundation of social conduct?

A reasonable consideration of the rights or feelings of others is the foundation of social contract.

i) How can we sweeten our life’s journey?

The little habits of common intercourse sweeten our life’s journey.

j) What does the traffic policeman symbolize?

The traffic policeman symbolizes liberty and not tyranny.

2. Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each.

a) What is ‘liberty’ according to the old lady?

According to the old lady, walking where she likes is her personal liberty. She thinks that people have got liberty now. She gives importance to individual liberty.

b) How would ‘liberty’ cause universal chaos?

If an individual asserts his liberty and ignores the liberty of others, it would cause universal chaos. If everybody gets in everybody’s way nobody would reach anywhere.

c) Why is there a danger of the world getting ‘liberty drunk’?

Everyone asserts his liberty and does what he likes to do. Everyone gets in everybody’s way. Individual liberty is given priority. So there is a danger of the world getting ‘liberty drunk’.

d) ‘Curtailment of private liberty is done to establish social order’ – Do you agree?

Yes, I agree to the point of view that curtailment of private liberty is done to establish social order. Liberty is a social contract. If everyone has his own way of asserting individual liberty, nobody would get anywhere. There will be utter chaos and confusion everywhere.

3. Answer each of the following in a paragraph of 100–150 words.

a) What do you infer from Gardiner’s essay ‘On the rule of the Road’?

There is a danger of the world getting liberty-drunk in these days.

In the lesson ‘On the Rule of the Road’, Gardiner emphasises that liberty is not a personal matter but a social contract. According to him, the rule of the road means that the liberties of everybody must be curtailed for the liberties of all to be preserved. If everybody gets in everybody else’s way, nobody will get anywhere. Individual liberty would become social anarchy. In matters which do not touch others’ liberty we can be as free as we like. We can choose to go down the road in a dressing gown. We can go to bed late or get up early. We need nobody’s permission in these matters. It is personal liberty. We can practise our trombone in our house without disturbing our neighbours. But if we do it in the street, the neighbours will raise objections. They will argue that our liberty to blow trombone must not interfere with their liberty to sleep in quiet. So we must accommodate our liberty to the liberties of others.

“They who can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary
safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.”

b) Explain in your own words, “what freedom means?”.

When we step out of that kingdom, our personal liberty of action
becomes qualified by other people’s liberty.

Freedom means doing what is pleasing to us without interfering in freedom of others. Our freedom is restricted for the cause of social order. Freedom is not a personal matter. It involves the people around us or the people whom we come into contact with. We may have the freedom to dress anyway we like. We have the freedom to choose any religion to practice. In matters that do not infringe on others’ freedom, we are absolutely free. We can listen to any song or watch any TV serial but when we tune at high volume, we offend our family as well as our neighbours whose freedom to be in quiet is breached by us. To maintain the freedom of all, the freedom of everybody must be curtailed or restricted. So freedom is a social contract.

Freedom is not a gift bestowed upon us by other men but a right
that belongs to us by the laws of God and nature.

c) “My right to swing my fist ends, where your nose begins.” Elucidate with reference to, ‘On the Rule of the Road’.

When we step out of that kingdom, our personal liberty of action
becomes qualified by other people’s liberty.

Liberty is doing what we desire. We can dye our hair or wax our moustache. We can put on an overcoat and sandals. We can go to bed late or get up early. In these personal matters, we follow our fancy and need not expect anybody’s permission. But when we come into contact with other people we cannot do everything we like. What we should do will be qualified by other’s liberty. We may swing our fist in any way but our liberty to swing ends where someone’s nose begins. We are supposed not to hit or hurt the person coming opposite. We should not disregard his liberty or his feelings. One can blow the trombone in the street but the liberty of his neighbours to sleep calmly should not be breached. So we must accommodate others’ liberties to our liberty. This is the foundation of social contract.

Liberty is maintained by responsible freedom.

d) Civilization can only exist when the public collectively accepts constraints on its freedom of action – Explain.

In order that the liberties of all may be preserved, the liberties of
everybody must be curtailed.

Civilization can only exist when liberty of the public is restricted. The liberties of everybody must be curtailed for the liberties of all to be preserved. One may choose to go down the street in a dressing gown. One may have a fancy for dyeing his hair or waxing his moustache. But in the presence of people liberties are restricted for the social order. We may blow the trombone provided nobody is disturbed. But if the neighbours argue that our freedom to play on the musical instrument interferes with their liberty to sleep calmly, they are justified. Unless all the people follow the traffic rule without asserting their liberty to choose to go any way they like, there will be utter chaos. None can reach anywhere. So the public must collectively accept constraints on its freedom so that the life journey will be sweet.

The love of liberty is the love of others; the love of power is the love of ourselves.


 Pronunciation – Functional Stress 

  • There are many English words with the same spelling but pronounced in two different ways. Usually, when the first syllable is stressed, the word is a Noun and when the second syllable is stressed, the word is a Verb.
  • For example the word ‘contract’, when it functions as a Noun will take the meaning ‘commitment’, while the same word, con’tract as a Verb, will take the meaning ‘shrink’. Make a note on the change in the word stress also.

a) Now the teacher will read the following words. Listen carefully to the stress in each word. Write against each word whether it is a noun or a verb and mark the stress.


b) The most noticeable difference between American and British English is in the vocabulary  usage. There are hundreds of everyday words that are different.

For example, British call the front of a car the Bonnet, while Americans call it the Hood.

c) Some British English words are given in column ‘A’. Write their corresponding American English word is Column ‘B.’

pull oversweater
waist coatvest
chipsfrench fries
ground floorfirst floor
wind screenwind shield
indicatorturn signal
time tableschedule
full stopfull
loorest room

d) Similarly there is a difference in the spelling of certain words between American and British English. In Column ‘A’ words are spelled in American. Write down the corresponding British English spelling for those words in column ‘B’. (The first one is done for you)



Listen carefully to the story being read out and answer the questions.

1. According to the father what kept the kite up?

  1. the kite itself
  2. air
  3. the string
  4. father’s skills

Ans ; air

2. The string helped the kite to

  1. withstand the pressure
  2. break free
  3. crash
  4. soar high

Ans ; break free

3. To realize our full potential, we should

  1. obey our elders
  2. follow a set of rules
  3. work hard
  4. plan well

Ans ; follow a set of rules

4. A train should go on the _________ to reach its destination.

  1. track
  2. line
  3. road
  4. path

Ans ; track

5. To realize our full potential, we should

  1. obey our elders
  2. follow a set of rules
  3. work hard
  4. plan well

Ans ; follow a set of rules

6. Taking freedom in our own hands will lead to

  1. self-discipline
  2. chaos
  3. a code of conduct
  4. freedom

Ans ; chaos

7. The main idea of the passage is

  1. the art of flying kites
  2. father’s advice to his son
  3. the importance of discipline
  4. the right to freedom

Ans ; father’s advice to his son


a) Everybody enjoys holidays but, when it comes to safety ‘There is no holiday for safety’. Discuss in groups what safety measures one should take while driving a car/ two wheeler.

There is no holiday for safety

Road accidents have become a part of life. But we must avoid them by being extremely careful. While driving a two wheeler, the rider should follow the traffic rules religiously. First of all, he must wear the helmet, without which he may be doomed to meet his hell-mate. The pillion-rider must also wear the helmet. Second, he must not use the mobile phone or any other electronic device while driving. Third, he must keep his attention on driving. He must not divert his attention towards the road side hoardings, posters or advertisements. It would be better not to engage in conversation with the pillion-rider. He must drive defensively according to the speed limit to be observed in certain zone. Focusing attention on sign boards, he must drive safely. Finally, he must avoid adventurism on the road.

b) Your school has arranged for a road safety campaign, Share a few ideas with your classmates which can be used during the campaign. For example ‘Speed thrills but kills’.

v Safety first, speed next.
v Wear helmet, avoid hell-mate.
v Don’t drink and drive.
v Don’t use cellphone while driving.
v Obey the traffic signals, avoid death signal.
v Expect the unexpected : drive defensively.
v Focus on driving. Keep away distractions.
v Don’t watch the hoardings or ads while driving.
v Minimum speed : maximum safety.
v Check your vehicle now and then.


Cyber Safety

Technology is a double-edged sword. In this day and age, it is not possible to restrict the children totally from using the digital technologies. But some sort of checks and balances should be maintained at all times.

Given below is a text on “Cyber safety” developed from the inputs received from Crime-Branch Crime Investigation Department (CBCID), Tamilnadu dated:05.12.2018. Read the text and answer the questions that follow.


1. Which of the following should one avoid while using social media? Tick against the correct options.

Interacting with strangers on social mediaü
Avoid posting your picture as profile pictureü
Forwarding Whatsapp messages without verifying factsü
Use a secure browser
Entering passwords while using public networkü

2. How can we identify insecure websites?

If the website URL starts only as http:|| we can identify that it is insecure.

3. Mention any three details that should not be revealed in public domain.

  1. Any passwords.
  2. Credit Card / Debit Card details.
  3. Bank Account / Credentials.

4. What should parents do to ensure cyber safety for their wards ? (Any three points)

  • The parents should set a fixed time during which children may be allowed to surf the internet.
  • They should not keep the computer in a secluded part.
  • They should make it a habit of checking browsing history/ hidden files / apps installed etc., on the computer / device to monitor the activity of their children.

5. Why is it not advisable to play online games?

It is not advisable to play on-line games as it will distract their attention from studies and lead to addiction, homicide or suicide.

6. Pick out words which mean the same as

  1. stop doing something (para 1) – desist
  2. place or fix (para 2) – installed
  3. not protected (para 2) – insecure
  4. keep a check on (para 3) – monitor


Agreement of the subject with the verb

Task 1

I. Choose the correct option and complete the sentences.

1. Manoj ________ (was, were) present along with his parents.

Ans : was

2. Each of these boys _______ (has, have) passed.

Ans : has

3. Neither Lekha nor Leela ______ (has, have) been selected.

Ans : has

4. Every man, woman and child _______ (was, were) happy.

Ans : was

5. One of the machines _______ (is, are) defective.

Ans : is

6. A number of books _________ (is, are) missing.

Ans: are

7. Seker or his brothers ________ (has, have) done it.

Ans: have

8. To make a promise and then not to keep it ________ (is, are) dishonesty.

Ans : is

9. One or the other of those men _______ (has, have) lodged a complaint.

Ans : has

10. Each leaf and each flower _______ (was, were) stripped off the tree.

Ans : was

Task 2

II. Identify the errors in each of the following sentences and rewrite them Correctly.

1. Either Shyam or Ram have to pay the fine.

Either Shyam or Ram has to pay the fine.

2. Abdul as well as Karim deserve praise.

Abdul as well as Karim deserves praise.

3. Ten thousand rupees a month are an insufficient income.

Ten thousand rupees a month is an insufficient income.

4. Many a student were awarded at the function.

Many a student was awarded at the function.

5. Neither Veena nor her sisters has been informed of the accident.

Neither Veena nor her sisters have been informed of the accident.

6. Mithra as well as her daughters enjoy singing.

Mithra as well as her daughters enjoys singing.

7. You, who is my friend, should help me.

You, who are my friend, should help me.

8. My scissors is missing.

My scissors are missing.

9. A variety of pleasing objects charm the eye.

A variety of pleasing objects charms the eye.

10. Sixty miles are a long distance.

Sixty miles is a long distance.


Describing a process

Task 1

Preparation of apple juice

You plan to delight your parents and sister, serving them chilled apple juice. Here is the process: (Complete the sentences with the right form of the verbs)

Four or five apples are taken (take) and washed (wash) well. They are wiped (wipe) dry and cut into pieces of medium size. The seeds are removed (remove). Then the apples are put (put) into the mixer. Some milk is added (add).The apples are crushed (crush) and a fine liquid is obtained (obtain). This liquid is filtered (filter) and the juice is stored (store) in the refrigerator. It is taken (take) out whenever needed, and after adding sugar, it is served (serve) in cups.

Task 2

Installing a computer

The description of installing a computer in your study room is given in the form of jumbled sentences. Rearrange the sentences in the right order and form a coherent paragraph.

  1. Once you connect the CPU, connect the keyboard and mouse.
  2. Before turning on the power, check that all parts are connected to the CPU.
  3. First open the box and take out the computer parts.
  4. Plug both the computer and the monitor with a power cord.
  5. Set the computer on a table or flat surface.
  6. Finally turn on the power.

Answer :

First open the box and take out the computer parts. Set the computer on a table or flat surface. Once you connect the CPU, connect the keyboard and mouse. Plug both the computer and the monitor with a power cord. Before turning on the power, check that all parts are connected to the CPU. Finally turn on the power.

Task 3

Attempt a description of the following processes, in about 100 words each, either using the imperative or the passive.

1. Preparing your favourite dish

Preparing a favourite dish

¤ Take a bowl and mix fennel seeds, mustard seeds, cumin seeds and asafoetida.
¤ Heat oil in another pan.
¤ Add the seed mixture.
¤ Add small pieces of onion when crackling sound is heard.
¤ Saute till the onions turn pink.
¤ Add paneer, turmeric, chilli and pepper.
¤ Stir for sometime.
¤ Add coriander and salt.
¤ Bring them to a boil.
¤ Serve Achaari Paneer hot.

2. Organising a birthday party in your house

Organising a birthday party in the house

¤ Prepare a list of friends, relatives and neighbours to invite.
¤ Collect their phone numbers.
¤ Order a big birthday cake and milk chocolates.
¤ Arrange for tea according to the number of people invited.
¤ Buy colour papers or festoons.
¤ Decorate the hall where the party will be held.
¤ Invite the people two days before the birthday party.
¤ Buy ready-made garments and wear them on the birthday.
¤ Cut the cake and distribute the pieces of cake and chocolates.
¤ Serve tea after getting blessings.

3. Sending a letter by courier service

Sending a letter by courier service

The letter is put in an envelope which is stuck with gum. The address of the receiver is written on the front side. The address of the sender is written on the reverse side of the envelope. It is taken to a courier service office. It is weighed. Money is paid according to the weight of the envelope. The bill with the details of the envelope is obtained.

4. Obtaining a demand draft from a bank

Obtaining a DD from a bank

¤ Collect a DD application.
¤ Fill in the details such as the sender’s address and the beneficiary’s address.
¤ Mention the exact sum of money to be sent and add the commission amount.
¤ Mention the mode of payment either in cash or by cheque.
¤ Mention the place where the DD can be encashed.
¤ Affix your signature and hand over the form to the clerk.
¤ Obtain a counterfoil and wait for your Demand Draft.

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