Lesson 1.1 Sir Isaac Newton – The Ingenious Scientist
Lesson 1.1 > Sir Isaac Newton – The Ingenious Scientist
In pairs, identify the great thinkers of the world and write the names from the box.
|Aristotle||Swami Vivekananda||A.P.J Abdul Kalam||Buddha|
- ingenuity – the ability to invent things / creativity
- contrived – created / invented
- apprentice – works for someone to learn skills
- acquiring – getting knowledge or skill
- gauge – here estimate / determine
- pried – investigate
- hoppers – funnel shaped bins for feeding grains into mills
Read and Understand
A. Fill in the blanks.
1. Issac Newton was born at
Ans ; small village of Woolsthorpe in England.
2. Grand mother was advised to apprentice him to a
Ans ; clock mater
3. Isaac made a clock, by the dropping of __________.
Ans ; water
4. The sun-dial made by Isaac is still in existence at __________.
Ans ; woolsthorpe
5. Isaac constructed a model of the __________.
Ans ; wind will
B. Choose the correct synonyms for the italicized words.
1. Isaac was chiefly remarkable for his ingenuity.
Ans ; notable
2. He will make a capital workman.
Ans ; head
3. Nobody could tell what the sunshine was composed of.
Ans ; Made
4. But he cared little for earthly fame and honors.
Ans ; popularity
- enchanted – delighted
- miniature – very small model
- curiosity – eagerness
- accustomed – something to familiar with
- gazing – looking stedily and intenthy
- renown – fame and respect
- ceased – stopped
A. Choose the correct antonym for the italicized word.
1. His Grandmother was very kind to him.
Ans ; cruel
2. The boy seemed to have a taste for mathematics.
Ans ; dislike
3. Isaac possessed a wonderful faculty of acquiring knowledge.
Ans ; lacked
4. He was observed to be usually busy with his tools.
Ans ; rarely
B. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.
1. Who was taking care of Newton after his father died?
Newton’s grandmother was taking care of Newton after his father’s death.
2. What did Isaac manufacture at his young age?
At his young age, Newton manufactured little tools and saws of various sizes.
3. How did the young boy find the strength of the wind?
The young boy jumped against the wind. By the length of his jump, he could calculate the strength of the wind.
4. Why were his friends attracted by the windmill?
Newton’s friends were attracted by the windmill because they thought that nothing so pretty and so wonderful had ever been seen in the whole world.
5. How was he honoured by the king?
Newton was honoured with the little of knight by the king.
C. Answer the following in about 100 words.
1. How did Newton learn about the way a windmill operated?
There was a windmill not far from Newton’s grandmother’s house. The windmill operated on a new plan. Newton visited the windmill very often. He would spend hours in examining its various parts. When the windmill was at rest, he looked into its internal machinery. When its broad sails were set in motion, he watched how the mill-stones revolved and the grain was crushed. By observing the mechanism of the windmill, he gained a thorough knowledge of its construction.
2. Mention some of his inventions.
Some of Newton’s discoveries and inventions are:
- the nature of light
- the force of gravitation
- the mechanism of the Universe
- the water clock
- law of cooling
- the laws of motion
Two or more words having the same spelling but different meanings and origins
|1||Address||location||This is her address|
|Address||to speak to||She addressed the open-air meeting.|
|2||Band||Band a musical group||The band was playing old songs.|
|Band||a ring||She always ties her hair back in a band.|
|3||Bat||mammal||I am afraid of bats.|
|Bat||an implement used to hit a ball||I love my cricket bat|
|4||Right||correct||He is right|
|Right||direction||Take a right turn.|
Write a sentence of your own for each homonyms.
|1||a. Bright||very smart or intelligent||Our class monitor is bright.|
|b. Bright||filled with light||Our library is bright with five tubelights.|
|2||a. Express||something done fast||The parcel came express.|
|b. Express||convey||I express my thanks for your help.|
|3||a. Kind||type||Ravi bought a new kind of scooter.|
|b. Kind||caring||The doctor is kind to the patients.|
|4||a. Well||in good health||I am well after a bright period of illness.|
|b. Well||water resource||The well in our garden is dry.|
A phrase that consists of a verb with a preposition or adverb or both, the meaning of which is different from the meaning of its separate parts:
“Catch on” is a phrasal verb which means to understand
|call on somebody||visit somebody||We called on you last night but you weren’t|
|call back||To return a
|Could please call back in ten minutes?|
|get rid of||To eliminate||Please get rid of that old t-shirt. It’s so ragged.|
|keep on||To continue
|If you keep on making that noise I will get
|kick off||To begin, start||The rugby match kicked off at 3 o’clock.|
|take care of||I have to look after my sick grandmother|
Write the meaning for the phrasal verbs.
|1. look into||investigate||The police will look into the possibilities of embezzlement.|
|2. give up||leave it||She doesn’t give up easily|
|3. put off||postpone||We asked the boss to put off the meeting until tomorrow.|
|4. get on||continue||He would finish one Dickens novel and then just go on to the next.|
|5. take off||remove clothing||It was so hot that I had to take off my shirt.|
Use the following phrasal verbs in your own sentence.
|1. put up with||I can’t put up with this problem|
|2. keep on||Keep on go road left side|
|3. look after||He looked after his grandmother.|
|4. take over||I will take over the leadership in class|
|5. go through||I go through good way in my life|
Listen to the passage carefully and write the answer.
Fleming’s thought at breakfast
Sir Alexander Fleming. Who discovered penicillin, was once forced into an interview in New York by two journalist just as he was about to have breakfast. One of them asked him, ‘Sir, what are you thinking about right now? We wish to know what a great scientist think while getting ready for breakfast’.
Fleming mused awhile on the question and he replied, ‘I am thinking of something very special.’ The journalist, who were all ears, drew themselves forward. ‘I am thinking, whether to have one egg or two’.
1. Name the scientist.
Sir Alexander Fleming.
2. What did he discover?
He discovered penicillin.
3. Who approached the scientist?
Two journalists approached the scientist.
4. What was the question asked by the journalist?
The journalist asked Fleming what he was thinking about right now.
5. When did they meet the scientist?
When Fleming was about to have breakfast, they met the scientist.
‘Connector ’ is a word or a phrase that joins two sentences or group of words,
together. They are also known as ‘conjunctions’.
|Coordinating conjunctions join words, phrases or clauses of equal importance.
Those are: and, but, or, therefore, both…and, as well as, not only…but also, too, no less…than, either…or, neither… nor, else, otherwise, still, yet, while, however, so, consequently, for, etc…
Example : She ran fast and won the race.
|Subordinating conjunctions join words, phrases or clauses of unequal importance.
Those are: after, as, until, unless, when, whenever, as soon as, as if, as though, because, before, even if, even though, if, since, so that, though, till, where, wherever, whether, while, why, etc……
Example : The bus had left before he came.
|A correlative conjunction is a type of conjunction that functions in a pair.
Those are: either…or, both….and, neither….nor, not only…. but also, such…as, such….that, so….as, as….as, as….so, no sooner…. than, rather….than, whether….or….
I am not only a singer but also a dancer.
I. Coordinating Conjunctions
These conjunctions join words, phrases or clauses of coordinate i-e, of equal rank.
- She ran fast and won the game.
- God made the country and man made the town.
- Get ready soon or you will miss the bus.
- I requested him but did not leads the work.
- Behave better else you will suffer.
II. Subordinate conjunctions.
These conjunctions join two clauses. One of which is subordinate to the other.
- Make hay while the sun shines.
- Ravi reached the exam hall before the school bel rang.
Where, wherever, whence, whither
- You will find your looks where you had placed them.
- You can see the beauty of this nature wherever you go in Ooty.
- The alarm woke me up, eventhough it wasn’t very loud.
- The child was not covered, although it was very cold.
- He is not as clever as you.
- Rekha is better than her brother.
III. Correlative conjunctions.
These pairs of conjunctions require equal structures after each one.
- Shruthi wants either the chocolates or the cake.
- She said that she would like to have both the chocolates and the cake.
- You can have neither the cake nor the ice-cream.
- I have not yet decided whether I will have the cake or the ice-cream.
- She ate not only the chocolates but also the ice-cream.
- Gomathy is both cute and lovely.
1. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with suitable conjunctions from the box:
1. I returned home _______ the bus had started.
Ans ; after
2. I respect him ______ he is very strict.
Ans ; although
3. Sudharshan will succeed ______ he works hard.
Ans ; because
4. Aravinth ______ Arun are classmates from their childhood.
Ans ; and
5. You can’t have your fruits ______ you take your food.
Ans ; unless
2. Choose the correct conjunctions from the options given in the brackets.
1. Everyone likes him _________ he is very helpful. (because/for)
Ans ; because
2. ______ it was cloudy, we decided to take an umbrella. (so/as)
Ans ; so
3. Rathi found her watch ______ she left it. (wherever/where)
Ans ; where
4. I don’t know _________ I can afford to buy a new dress. (whether/why)
Ans ; whether
5. _______ he was ill, he went to the doctor. (as/though)
Ans ; as
3. Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences.
- Revathy and Rohini are friends.
- If you say so, I will believe it.
- Shekar is intelligent but careless.
- The bus was overcrowded so Arun avoided travelling in it.
- Though Vinay is ill, he doesn’t skip the class
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