Lesson 1.1 The Nose-Jewel
Lesson 1.1 > The Nose-Jewel
What are the life lessons that you can learn from the birds? Match the birds with the characters given in the box and fill in the blanks.
( Arise and awake, Beautiful, Unity, Focused, Melodious, Time conscious )
|Time conscious||Be on time to school|
|Arise and awake||Go to bed early and wake up early|
|Melodious||Always speak politely|
|Beauty||A thing of beauty is a joy for ever|
|Stay focussed||Unity is strength|
- self-centred (adj) – concerned with the self
- disdain (n) – feeling of contempt or scorn
- muck-heap (n) – heap
- grub (n) – food
- magistrate (n) – a judicial officer with limited authority to administer and
enforce the law.
- disgrace (n) – the state of being dishonored, or covered with same
- Ignorant (adj) – unaware
- Consoled (v) – comforted (someone) in the time of grief, disappointment
- Suspected (v) – believed to be a cause or at fault
- Flutter (v) – to flap or wave quickly but irregularly
- Confi ned (v) – restricted, kept in a limited space or area
- Panic (adj) – frightened
- Cruel (adj) – merciless or heartless
- Gravely (adv) – in a grave or serious manner
Read and Understand
A) Choose the correct synonyms for the italicized words
1. Nice fun indeed
Ans ; infact
2. The poor woman is in a panic
Ans ; fear
3. The mother consoled her little girl.
Ans ; comforted
4. You are always self-centred
Ans ; egostic
5. What is the secret you are whispering?
Ans ; murmur
B) Find the antonym for the following words.
- Delight × sad
- Disgrace × honour
- Careless × careful
- Secret × public
- confine × release
1. Where did the sparrows build the nest?
The sparrows built the nest on the roof of Ramayya’s house
2. Why did the bird drop diamond stud?
The bird dropped diamond stud because the she-sparrow said that it was of no
use to them.
3. What were the words of Meenakshi Ammal to her daughter?
Meenakshi Ammal said that they would search and find the diamond stud. She asked her daughter not to tell about it to her father for he would get angry if he knew that she had lost the diamond nose stud.
4. Who was suspected of stealing the diamond nose stud?
Meenakshi Ammal’s servant maid Kuppayi was suspected of stealing the diamond nose stud.
5. What did Ramayya’s wife do with the stud?
Ramayya’s wife put the stud in her box.
6. What happened to Ramayya’s wife at the end?
At the end, she got fever and confined to bed.
D) Answer the following in about 100 words.
1. Why did the sparrow throw the nose jewel into Ramayya’s house?
The sparrow brought a nose jewel that he found in a muck heap to his wife. But his wife was least bothered and told him that it was of no use to them. So the he-sparrow threw the nose jewel into Ramayya’s house. The he-sparrow pitied Ramayya and some how or the other it wanted to help him. This also may be one reason for the sparrow to throw the nose jewel into Ramayaa’s house.
2. Explain how Ramayya’s wife reacted when she saw the nose jewel?
Ramayaa’s wife saw the nose jewel when she was sweeping. She picked it up happily and wore it immediately.
An Eponym as we will use the term here is an ordinary common noun derived from a proper noun, the name of a person or place. Words whose origin is traced to individuals are known as eponymous words.
|Colombia||A South American country and the name of many cities around the world.||Christofor Columbus (1451-1506), the Italian discoverer of the America in 1492.|
|diesel||A type of motor engine that runs on heating oil rather than gasoline or petrol.||Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913), the German mechanical engineer who invented it.|
|March||The third month of the Gregorian calendar between February and April.||Mars, the Roman god of war.|
|Oscar||The annual award for best performances by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.||This name originated from Oscar Pierce, US wheat farmer and fruit grower.|
|sandwich||Food on a slice of bread or between two slices, eaten with the hands.||John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792), an English aristocrat after whom Captain James Cook also named the Sandwich Islands.|
E) Fill in the blanks with correct Meaning and Eponym for the given words.
|saxophone||A single-read wood wind with a a conical bore (musical instrument)||Named after sax, the surname of a 19 century instrument making family in Belgium.|
|volcano||An opening in the earth through which molten lava issues||Vulcan (Latin volcanus), the Roman god of fire and metal working.|
|Eiffel Tower||A tower of skeletal iron construction in Paris||Named after Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, 1832-1923, French Engineer|
|Boycott||To refuse to do business with because of a difference of opinion||Charles, C. Boycott, an Irish.|
|Mount Everest||A summit in Himalayas.||Colonel Sir George Everest, a British Surveyor and geographer who served as surveyor general f India from 1830 to 1843|
Euphemisms have many diff erent uses. They can help you avoid being overly blunt and remain in a tone of politeness. Using an inoff ensive word in the place of an off ensive word.
Common Euphemisms in English
|old||Over the hill|
|enjoying your retired life||Staying on the tractor|
|Slow Learners||Late bloomers|
F) Fill in the blanks with correct Euphemisms for the given words.
|Deaf, or hard of hearing||Hearing – impaired|
|Mentally ill||Exter – high energy|
G) Listen to the passage carefully and choose the right answer.
1) Why do birds sing?
- To locate one another
- To warn other birds
- To fi nd a mate
- All of the above
Ans ; All of the above
2) Birds perch very high so …?
- other birds can hear them
- other birds can see them
- they can hide there
- Both A and B are correct.
Ans ; Both A and B are correct.
3) The health of a bird can be determined…
- by the length of its song
- by the complexity of its song.
- by the volume of its song
- Both A and B are correct.
Ans ; Both A and B are correct.
4) Shorter bird vocalizations are …
- territorial songs
- mating songs
- None of the above
Ans ; warnings
5) Young birds perfect their songs by …
- natural instinct
- listening and interaction
- Both B and C are correct
Ans ; Both B and C are correct
6) Fitness is …
- a song
- a warning.
Ans ; health
7) What help does a basic song do?
- recognize other members
- Maintain health
- Increase the length of their song
- Communicate with one another.
Ans ; recognize other members
There are a number of greetings we use when meeting people. These greetings depend on whether we are meeting people, leaving people or meeting people for the first time.
Meeting People for the First Time
When introduced to someone for the fi rst time, use the following greetings:
Hello, it’s a pleasure to meet you.
Person 1: Ameera, this is Fatima.
Note: The reply to ‘How do you do.’ is ‘How do you do.’ This is appropriate when
you meet someone for the first time.
When meeting people during the day, use the following phrases
|Good morning / afternoon / evening||Hi|
|How are you?||Hey, how’s it going?|
|It’s good to see you.||What’s up?|
Person 1: Good morning Roshini.
Person 2: Good morning. How are you?
Person 1: What’s up?
Person 2: Nothing much. You?
Formal Greetings: Arriving
- Good morning / afternoon / evening.
- Hello (name), how are you?
- Good day Sir / Madam (very formal)
- Good morning Mr. .
- Hello Ms. Sherlyn. How are you today?
Informal Greetings: Arriving
|Hi / Hello
How are you?
How are you doing?
What’s up? (very informal)
|How are you? / How are you doing?
Very well, thank you. And you? (formal)
Fine / Great (informal)
I’m just (watching TV, cooking dinner, etc.)
Informal Greetings After a Long Time
If you haven’t seen a friend or family member for a long time, use one these
informal greetings to mark the occasion.
- It’s great to see you!
- How have you been?
- Long time, no see.
- How are you doing these days?
Formal Greetings: Departing
Use these greetings when you say goodbye at the end of the day. These greetings are appropriate for work and other formal and informal situations.
|Good morning / afternoon / evening.||Nice seeing you!|
|It was a pleasure seeing you.||Goodbye / Bye|
|Goodbye.||See you later|
|Goodnight. (Note: Use after 8 p.m.)||Later (very informal)|
Greetings in Informal Conversations: Practice Dialogue
Amala: Sanjay, what’s up?
Sanjay: Hi Amala. Nothing much. I’m just hanging out. What’s up with you?
Amala: It’s a good day. I’m feeling fine.
Sanjay: How is your sister?
Amala: Oh, fine. Not much has changed.
Sanjay: Well, I have to go. Nice seeing you!
Greetings in Formal Conversations: Practice Dialogue
Cecily: Good morning.
Prabu: Good morning. How are you?
Cecily: I’m very well thank you. And you?
Prabu: I’m fine. Thank you for asking.
Cecily: Do you have a meeting this morning?
Prabu: Yes, I do. Do you have a meeting as well?
Cecily: Yes. Well. It was a pleasure seeing you.
DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
We use the exact words of the speaker in direct speech and We retell what the speakers said in our own words in indirect speech.
Direct – Keitlyn said. “I am very busy now.”
Indirect – Keitlyn said that she was very busy then
Ø Two verbs commonly used while reporting are told and said.
He said (that) he was cooking dinner.
He told me (that) he was cooking dinner.w
Ø Did you notice that tell/told has been used in the sentence which mentions the listener?
Ø In reported speech we need not mention the listener when we use say/said.
He said (that) he was cooking. [listener not mentioned)
In direct speech we say: Rahim said to me, ‘I will be waiting here.’
Ø In Direct Speech, we use inverted commas to mark off the exact words of the speaker. In Indirect Speech we do not.
Changes made the above sentence while converting Direct Speech into Indirect.
- We have used the conjunction that before the Indirect statement.
- The pronoun I is changed to she. (The Pronoun is changed in Person.)
- The verb am is changed to was. (Present Tense is changed to Past.)
- The adverb now is changed to then.
Rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect
When the reporting or principal verb is in the Past Tense, all Present tenses of the Direct are changed into the corresponding Past Tenses. Thus:-
(a) A simple present becomes a simple past.
Direct – He said, “I am fine.”
Indirect – He said (that) he was fine.
(b) A present continuous becomes a past continuous.
Direct – She said, “My sister is learning Bharatanatyam.”
Indirect – She said (that) her sister was learning Bharatanatyam.
(c) A present perfect becomes a past perfect.
Direct – He said, “I have won the match.”
Indirect – He said (that) he had won the match.
(d) The shall and the will of the Future Tense is changed into should and would.
(e) The simple past in the Direct becomes the past perfect in the Indirect.
Direct – She said, “The horse died in the night.”
Indirect – She said that the horse had died in the night.
(e) The tenses may not change if the statement is universal truth.
Direct – The teacher said, “The earth goes round the sun.”
Indirect – The teacher said the earth goes round the sun.
(f) If the reporting verb is in the Present Tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change.
For example, we may rewrite the above examples, putting the reporting verb in the Present Tense, thus:
He says he is fine.
She has just said her sister is learning Bharatanatyam.
He says he has won the match.
She says the horse died in the night.
(g) Words expressing nearness in time or place are generally changed into words expressing distance. Thus:-
|tomorrow||à||the next day|
|yesterday||à||the day before|
|last night||à||the night before|
Direct – The Prince said, “It gives me great pleasure to be herethis evening.”
Indirect – The Prince said that it gave him great pleasure to be there that evening.
(h) The changes do not occur if the speech is reported during the same period or at the same place;
Direct – The Prince said, “It gives me great pleasure to be here this evening.”
Indirect – The Prince said that it gives him great pleasure to be here this evening.
In reporting questions the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verbs as asked, enquired, whether or if etc.
Direct – He said to me, “What are you doing?”
Indirect – He asked me what I was doing.
Direct – “Where do you live?” asked the stranger.
Indirect – The stranger enquired where I lived.
Direct – He said, “Will you attend the meeting?”
Indirect – He asked them whether they would attend the meeting
A) Change the following into Indirect Speech:-
1. “What do you want?” he said to her.
He asked her what she wanted
2. He said, “How’s your father?”
He asked how his / her / my father was.
3. “Are you coming home with me?” he asked.
He asked if / whether / he / she / I was coming home with him
4. The poor man exclaimed, “Will none of you help me?”
The poor man said if / whether none would help him.
5. “Don’t you know the way home?” asked I
I asked if / whether he / she didn’t know the way home.
Commands and Requests
In reporting commands and requests, the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verbs as ordered, requested, commanded, shouted, urged etc.
Direct – Rama said to Arjun, “Go away.”
Indirect – Rama ordered Arjun to go away.
Direct – He said to him, “Please wait here till I return.”
Indirect – He requested him to wait there till he returned.
Direct – “Call the first witness,” said the judge.
Indirect – The judge commanded them to call the first witness.
Direct – He shouted, “Let me go.”
Indirect – He shouted to them to let him go.
Direct – He said, “Be quiet and listen to my words.”
Indirect – He urged them to be quiet and listen to his words.
B) Change the following into Indirect Speech:-
1. “Bring me a glass of milk,” said the swami to the villagers.
The swami ordered / asked the villagers to bring him a glass of milk
2. “Sit down, boys,” said the teacher.
The teacher ordered / asked the boys to sit down.
3. “Halt!” shouted the officer to his men.
The officer ordered / asked his men to halt.
4. “Take off your hat,” the king said to the Hatter.
The king ordered / asked the hatter to take off his hat.
5. The teacher said to him, “Do not read so fast.”
The teacher advised / asked him not to read so fast.
6. He said to me, “Wait until I come.”
He asked me to wait until he came.
7. “Hurry up,” he said to his servant, “do not waste time.”
He advised / asked his servant to hurry up and not to waste time.
8. “Run away, children,” said their mother.
The mother ordered / asked the children to run away
9. He said, “Daughter, take my golden jug, and fetch me some water from the Well.”
He asked his daughter to take his golden jug and fetch him some water from the well.
10“Go down to the bazaar. Bring me some oil and a lump of ice.” ordered his master.
His master ordered to go down to the bazaar and bring him some oil and a lump of ice
Exclamations and Wishes
In reporting exclamations and wishes the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verbs as exclaimed, applauded etc.
Direct – He said, “Alas! I am undone.”
Indirect – He exclaimed sadly that he was undone.
Direct – Alice said, “How clever I am!”
Indirect – Alice exclaimed that she was very clever.
Direct – He said, “Bravo! You have done well.”
Indirect – He applauded him, saying that he had done well
C) Change the following into Indirect Speech:-
1. He said, “My God! I am ruined.”
He exclaimed with regret that he was ruined.
2. He said, “Alas! our foes are too strong.”
He exclaimed sadly that their foes were too strong.
3. “How smart you are!” she said.
She exclaimed with wonder that he was very smart.
4. He said. “Oh ! that’s a nuisance.”
He exclaimed that that was a nuisance.
5. He said, “What a pity you did not come!”
He exclaimed that what a pity he didn’t come.
D) What were the actual words used in each instance below? The sentences containing the actual words are listed afterwards in the wrong order. Write them out in the same order as the others.
- Punitha asked Pushpa what she was reading.
- Pushpa told her that he was reading Robinson Crusoe.
- Punitha asked her what it was all about.
- Pushpa said it was about a man wrecked on an island.
- Punitha then asked her friend who gave her the book.
- Pushpa answered that her uncle gave it to her at Christmas.
- Finally Punitha inquired if she could borrow it.
- Pushpa replied that she would certainly lend it to her
1) “What are you reading, Pushpa?” asked Punitha.
2)”I am reading Robinson Crusoe, Pushpa told her.
3) “What is it all about?” Punitha asked.
4) “It is about a man wrecked on an island,” Pushpa said.
5) “Who gave you the book, Pushpa?” Punitha then asked.
6) “Uncle gave it to me at Christmas,’ answered Pushpa.
7) “May I borrow it?” inquired Punitha.
8) “Of course I will lend it to you,” replied Pushpa.
E) Change the following into Direct Speech:-
1. Nevin asked his father when the next letter would come.
Nevin said to his father, ” When will the next letter come?”
2. I wrote that I would visit him next day.
I wrote, ” I will visit him tomorrow”
3. I told them to be quiet.
I said to them, ” Be quiet.”
4. Lakshan asked me if I had anything to say.
Lakshan said to me, ” Have you anything to say?”
5. An old mouse asked who would bell the cat.
An old mouse said, ” Who will bell the cat?”
6. Mervin said that he wanted to be a soldier.
Mervins said, “I want to be a soldier.”
7. Elwin asked me what I wanted.
Elvin said to me, “What do you want?”
8. Bhagya said that she had seen that picture.
Bhagya said, ” I have seen this picture.”
9. The stranger asked Nasrin where she lived.
“The stranger said to Nasrin, “Where do you live?”
10. I asked Mary if she would lend me a pencil.
I said to mary, ” Will you lend me a pencil?”
F) Sherlyn receives a postcard from her friend Pushpa who is holidaying in Sri Lanka. She calls her friend Galen and tells him what Pushpa has written. Help her by filling in the blanks, using reported speech.
Hello, Galen Today I received a postcard from Pushpa. Remember I had told you that She has gone to Sri Lanka on a holiday? Well, she has written from Colombo. She has written that (i) the previous day they visited Pinnawala elephant Orphanage. It (ii) had 84 elephants. She said that it is the biggest herd of elephants in the world that is living under human supervision. She also added that she (iii) was glad that they come there because (iv) she was learning a lot. The Elephant Orphanage (v) was truly worth visiting She said that (vi) the next day they were going to the national park. She (vii) said that she would be returning next week and added that (viii) she was looking forward to meeting me then.
G) Convert the following into indirect speech.
a. Sharun said to me, ‘Are you coming to school tomorrow?’
Sharun asked me if / whether I was coming to school the next day.
b. “We must visit the historical buildings of Delhi since we are here,’ said Ashok.
Ashok said that they must / had to visit the historical buildings of Delhi since they were there.
c. ‘Have you read The Wind in the Willows?’ asked Amutha.
Amutha asked if/whether he/she I had read The Wind in the Willows.
d. Teacher said to us, ‘You must conduct the experiment very carefully.’
Teacher told us that we must/had to conduct the experiment very carefully.
e. ‘Wow! That is great news!’ said Tejeswar.
Tejeswar exclaimed that that was great news.
Language Check Point:
|Direct Speech||Incorrect usage in Reported speech||Correct||reason|
|He asked,” May I come in?”||He asked if he might come in.||He asked if he could come in.||Here may indicates permission, in such cases may becomes could|
|She says, “I like mangoes.”||She says that she liked mangoes.||She says that she likes mangoes.||When the reporting speech is in the Present tense, the following reported part of the sentence doesn’t change from present to past tense.|
|He said, “Where is the shop?”||He asked that where was the shop.||He asked where was the shop.||The word ‘that’ is not used in making the reported speech of interrogative sentences.|
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