Lesson 23 Economic Biology
Economic Biology Book Back Answer
I . Choose the correct answer.
1. The production and management of fish is called
2. Which one of the following is not an exotic breed of cow?
- Brown Swiss
3. Which one of the following is an Italian species of honey bee?
- Apis mellifera
- Apis dorsata
- Apis florae
- Apis cerana
Ans: Apis dorsata
4. Which one of the following is not an Indian major carp?
5. Drones in the honey bee colony are formed from
- unfertilized egg
- fertilized egg
- both b and c
Ans: fertilized egg
6. Which of the following is an high milk yielding variety of cow?
- Holstein- Friesan
- Red Sindhi
Ans: Holstein- Friesan
7. Which Indian variety of honey bee is commonly used for apiculture?
- Apis dorsata
- Apis florea
- Apis mellifera
- Apis indica
Ans: Apis indica
8. __________ is the method of growing plants without soil.
- None of these.
9. The symbiotic association of fungi and vascular plants is
10. The plant body of mushroom is
- All of these
11. Which one of the following is refered as red worms?
- Eudrilus fetida
- Eudrilus eugieniae
- Perionyx excavatus
- Lampito mauritii.
Ans: Eudrilus fetida
12. Mehsana is a breed of
13. Binomial name of Nilavembu is
- Leucas aspera
- Andrographis paniculata
- Crotolaria juncea
- Cassia fistula
Ans: Andrographis paniculata
II. Fill in the blanks.
1. Quinine drug is obtained from ________
Ans: Chinchona officinalis
2. Carica papaya leaf can cure __________ disease.
3. Vermicompost is a type of soil made by __________ and microorganisms.
4. __________ refers to the culture of prawns, pearl and edible oysters.
5. The largest member in a honey bee hive is is the ___________.
Ans: Queen Bee
6. ________ is a preservative in honey.
Ans: Formic Acid
7. __________ is the method of culturing different variety of fish in a water body.
Ans: composite fish culture
8. Pasturage is related to __________
Ans: honey production
9. _________ is a nodulating type of micro organism associating symbiotically with the root of legume plants.
10. Ganoderma lucidum, is commonly known as __________ mushroom.
11. __________ is the maintenance of bee colonies in modern hives.
Ans: Worker Bees
12. The fertile female in a honey bee hive is ___________.
Ans: Queen Bee
III. State whether true or false, If false, correct the given statement.
1. Mycorrhiza is an algae.
Correct Ans: Mycorrhiza is a fungi.
2. Milch animals are used in agriculture and transport.
Correct Ans: Draught animals are used in agriculture and transport.
3. Apis florea is a rock bee.
Correct Ans: Apis dorsata is a rock bee.
4. Ongole is an exotic breed of cattle.
Correct Ans: Ongole is an indigenous breed of cattle.
5. Sheep manure contains high nutrients than farm yard manure.
6. Medicinal plants contain compounds that can be used for therapeutic purposes.
Correct Ans: Medicinal plants contain chemical compounds that can be used for therapeutic purposes
7. Anthraquinones is obtained from Ocimum sanctum.
Correct Ans: Anthraquinones is obtained from Aloe vera.
8. Aquaponics is a technique of growing plants with their root supplied with moisture present in the air.
Correct Ans: Aeroponics is a technique of growing plants with their root supplied with moisture present in the air.
IV. Match the following.
|Column A||Column B|
|1. Lobsters||Marine fish|
|3. Sea bass||Shell fish|
|5. Pokkali||Fin fish|
|6. Pleurotus sps||Psoriosis|
|7. Sarpagandha||Oyster mushroom|
|9. Wrighta tinctoria||Vegetable farming|
|Ans : 1 – C, 2 – E, 3 – A, 4 – B, 5 – D, 6 – G, 7 – I, 8 – J, 9 – F|
V. Differentiate the following.
a. Exotic breed and Indigenous breed
- The exotic breeds (Bos taurus) are imported from foreign countries. They include Jersey, Brown Swiss and Holstein-Friesian etc.
- These foreign breeds are selected for long lactation periods.
- Indigenous breeds are native of India.
- They include Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni and Gir.
- These cattle are well built with strong limbs, prominent hump and loose skin.
- Milk production depends on the duration of the lactation period (the period of milk production after the birth of a calf).
- These local breed animals show excellent resistant to diseases.
b. Pollen and Nectar
A fine powdery substance ,typically yellow consisting of microscopic grains discharged from the male part of aflower or male cone.Each grain contains amale gamete that can fertilize the female ovule
A sugary fluid secreted within flowers to encourage pollination by insects and other animals,collected by bees to make into honey.
c. Shrimp and Prawn
Penaeid prawns are called shrimps (e.g. Penaeus indicus)
Non – penaeid prawns are called prawns (e.g. Palaemon sps, Macrobrachium sps)
d. Farmyard manure and Sheep manure
It is a mixture of cattle dung, urine, litter material and other dairy wastes. On an average well decomposed farm yard manure contains 0.5% Nitrogen, 0.2% available phosphate and 0.5% available potash.
Sheep and Goat manure
It contains higher nutrients than farm yard manure. It contains 3% Nitrogen, 1% phosphorus pentoxide and 2% potassium oxide.
e. Fin fish and Shell fish
Fins are usually the most distinctive anatomicalfeature of fish. they are composed of bony spine.
An aquatic shelled mollusc especially on that is edible. eg.oyster,crab,shrimp
VI. Answer in brief.
1. What are secondary metabolites?
(AYUSH) use drugs obtained from plants and animals. These drugs from medicinal plants are called secondary metabolites
2. What are the types of vegetable garden?
Olericulture is the science of growing vegetables. Vegetable farming can be classified into:
- Kitchen or Nutrition gardening
- Commercial gardening
- Vegetable forcing
3. Mention any two mushroom preservation methods.
- Vacuum Cooling
- Gamma radiation and storing at 15°C.
4. Enumerate the advantages of vermicompost over chemical fertiliser.
- It is a rich source of nutrients essential for plant growth. It makes the soil fertile.
- It improves soil structure, texture, aeration and water holding capacity and helps to prevent soil erosion.
- It contains valuable vitamins, enzymes and growth regulator substances for increasing growth, vigour and yield of plants.
- It enhances decomposition of organic matter in soil.
- Vermicompost is free from pathogens and toxic elements.
- Vermicompost is rich in beneficial microflora.
5. What are the species of earthworm used for vermiculture?
Different types of earthworm are living in our soil. Among the vast community of earthworms only very few species can be used for vermicompost production. They are Perionyx excavatus (Indian blueworm), Eisenia fetida (Red worms), Eudrilus eugeniae (African night crawler)
6. List the medicinal importance of honey.
Uses of Honey
- Honey has an antiseptic and antibacterial property. It is a blood purifier.
- I t helps in building up of haemoglobin content in the blood.
- It is used in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines.
- It prevents cough, cold, fever and relieves sore throat.
- It is a remedy for ulcers of tongue, stomach and intestine.
- It enhances digestion and appetite
7. What do you know about AYUSH?
All the major system of medicines such as Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy (AYUSH) use drugs obtained from plants and animals
8. Why do we call Haryana and Kankrej breed of cattle as dual purpose breeds?
These breeds provide milk and they are useful for farm work. In India these breeds are favoured by farmers as the cows are fairly good milk yielders and bullocks are good for draught work. They includes Haryana, Ongole, Kankrej and Tharparkar
9. How is division of labour observed in honey bees?
There are three types of individuals in a colony namely the Queen bee, the drones and the worker bees.
The queen is the largest member and the fertile female of the colony.
They are the fertile males.
They are sterile female bees and are the smallest members of the colony.
10. What is the nutritional importance of fish liver oils? Name any two marine fishes which yield these oils.
It comprises of liver oil and body oil. Liver oil of Cod, Tuna, Halibut and Shark are of great medicinal value and are rich in vitamin A, D and E.
VII. Answer in detail.
1. Enumerate the advantage of hydroponics.
Hydroponics was demonstrated by a German Botanist Julius Von Sachs in 1980
- Crops can be grown in places where land is scarce, non-existent, or heavily polluted.
- Climate – can monitor temperature, humidity, light intensity, air composition.
- Conserving water and nutrients.
- Restricted plant growth.
- No infiltration by weeds.
- Pests and diseases are less
- Minimal use of insecticides or herbicides
- Hydroponics can be a useful alternative in deserts and arctic regions.
- Hydroponics has been successfully used for the commercial production of seedless cucumber and tomato.
2. Define Mushroom culture. Explain the mushroom cultivation methods.
Compost is prepared by mixing paddy straw with number of organic materials like cow dung and inorganic fertilizers. It is kept at about 50o C for one week.
Spawn is the mushroom seed. It is prepared by growing fungal mycelium in grains under sterile conditions. Spawn is sown on compost.
Compost is covered with a thin layer of soil. It gives support to the growing mushroom, provides humidity and helps regulate the temperature.
Mycelium starts to form little bud, which will develop into mushroom. It is known as pinning.Those little white buds are called pins.
Mushroom grow better in 15oC -23oC. They grow 3 cm in a week which is the normal size for harvesting. In the third week the first flush mushroom can be harvested.
Discolouration, weight and flavour loss are the main problems during harvesting of mushrooms. The following methods are used to increase their life.
iv) Vacuum Cooling
v) Gamma radiation and storing at 15°C.
3. What are the sources of organic resources for vermicomposting?
Biodegradable organic wastes are used as potential organic resources for vermicomposting.
- Agricultural waste (crop residues, vegetable waste, sugarcane waste).
- Crop residues (rice straw, tea waste, cereal and pulse residues, rice husk, tobacco waste, coconut coir waste). leaf litter
- Fruit and Vegetable Wastes.
- Animal wastes (cow dung, chicken dung, pig manure, goat and sheep dung).
- Biogas emulsion.
4. Give an account of different types of fish ponds used for rearing fishes.
Fish farm requires different types of pond for the various developmental stages of fish growth. They are given below:
Healthy and sexually mature male and female fishes are collected and introduced in this pond for breeding. The eggs released by the female are fertilized by the sperm and fertilized eggs float in water as frothy mass.
The fertilized eggs are transferred to hatching pits or hatching hapas for hatching.
The hatchlings are transferred from hatching pits after 2 to 7 days. The hatchlings grow into fry and are cultured in these ponds for about 60 days with proper feeding till they reach 2 – 2.5 cm in length.
Rearing ponds are used to culture the fry. The fish fry are transferred from nursery pond to rearing ponds and are maintained for about three months till they reach 10 to 15 cm in length. In these rearing ponds the fry develops into fingerlings.
The stocking pond is also called as culture pond or production pond. These ponds are used to rear fingerlings upto the marketable size.
5. Classify the different breeds of the cattle with suitable examples.
|a) Indigenous breeds|
Indigenous breeds are native of India. They include Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni and Gir
b) Exotic breeds
Exotic breeds (Bos taurus) are imported from foreign countries. They include Jersey, Brown Swiss and Holstein-Friesian etc.
|They are used for agricultural work, such as tilling, irrigation and carting. These include Amritmahal, Kangayam, Umblachery, Malvi, Siri and Hallikar breeds.||They provide milk and the bulls are useful for farm work. In India these breeds are favoured by farmers. They include Haryana, Ongole, Kankrej and Tharparkar||They are the Main milk producers. Murrah, Mehsana, and surti.|
VIII. Higher Order Thinking Skills.
1. Biomanuring plays an important role in agriculture. Justify
- Bioremediation minimizes soil pollution, water pollution and air pollution.
- It protects the health of the soil and promotes soil fertility.
- It also provides healthy production of vegetables, fruits etc.
- It enriches the soil by adding nutrients like nitrogen.
2. Each bee hive consists of hexagonal cells. Name the material in which the cell is formed and mention the significance of the hexagonal cells.
- Bees’ comb is mainly produced by the secretion of wax glands in the worker bee’s abdomen.
- The comb is a vertical sheet of wax with a double layer of hexagonal/cells.
- Hexagonal cells serve as honey storage vessels and houses for raising young bees.
VIII. Assertion and Reason.
Direction: In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of the statements given below, mark the correct answer as
- If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
- If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is not the correct explanation of Asssertion.
- If Assertion is true but Reason is false.
- If both Assertion and Reason are false.
1. Assertion: Hydroponics can be defined as a soilless growing system in which plants grow in water.
Reason: If a plant is provided with water, minerals and required nutrients, it will grow well and yield more even in the absence of soil.
Ans: If both Assertion and Reason are false.
2. Assertion: Fish and other varieties of aquatic animals are used as food.
Reason: Fish and other varieties of sea food constitute good source of nutrition.
Ans: If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
3. Assertion: The production of food from animal sources has increased greatly in the last few decades.
Reason: Operation flood and blue revolution production has increased in the recent years.
Ans: If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
V. Define the following.
It is the culture and rearing of fishes under controlled conditions.
Apiculture is the rearing of honey bee for honey. It is also called Bee keeping.
Vermiculture involves the artificial rearing or cultivation of earthworms and using them for the production of compost from natural organic wastes.
Culture of fishes and other aquatic organism in marine water near the sea coast
Floriculture is the art of cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants in garden for beauty or floristry
Compost is a soil conditioner as well as a fertilizer, which is rich in nutrients
The cultivation of fruit ,fruit growing technology is called pomiculture.
Mycelium starts to form little bud, which will develop into mushroom. Those little white buds are called pins.