Lesson.1 The Age of Revolutions
Lesson.1 The Age of Revolutions
I. Choose the correct answer
1. The first British colony in America was ……………
- New York
Ans : c) Jamestown
2. The pioneer of French Revolution who fought on the side of Washington against the British was ……………
Ans : b) Lafayette
3. Lafayette, Thomas Jefferson and Mirabeau wrote the ……………
- Declaration of Independence
- Declaration of Pilnitz
- Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
- Human Rights Charter
Ans : c) Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
4. The defeat of British at …………… paved the way for the friendship between France and America.
Ans : b) Saratoga
5. …………… was the symbol of “Royal Despotism” in France.
- Versailles Palace
- Prison of Bastille
- Paris Commune
- Estates General
Ans : b) Prison of Bastille
6. The forces of Austria and Prussia were defeated by the French Revolutionary forces at ……………
Ans : d) Valmy
7. Candide was written by ……………
Ans : a) Voltaire
8. The moderate liberals who wanted to retain Louis XVI as a limited monarchy were called ……………
Ans: a) Girondins
9. American War of Independence was ended with the Peace of Paris in the year
Ans : d) 1783
10. Thomas Paine’s famous pamphlet was ……………
- Common Sense
- Rights of Man
- Bill of Rights
- Abolition of Slavery
Ans : a) Common Sense
II Fill in the blanks
1. The Postmaster General of the Postal Department of the government of Continental Congress was …………..
Ans : Benjamin Franklin
2. The battle of Bunker Hill was fought on …………..
Ans : 17th June 1775
3. The ………….. Act insisted on repaying the debt in gold or silver.
Ans : Currency
4. The leader of National Assembly of France was …………..
Ans : Mirabeau
5. ………….. was guillotined for organizing a Festival of Liberty.
Ans : Herbert
6. Louis XVI was arrested at ………….. with his family when he tried to escape from France.
Ans : Varennes
III Choose the correct statement
1. i) The Portuguese were the pioneers of naval expeditions.
ii) New Plymouth was named after the Quaker Penn.
iii) Quakers have the reputation of encouraging wars.
iv) The English changed the name of New Amsterdam to NewYork.
- i & ii are correct
- iii is correct
- iv is correct
- i & iv are correct
Ans : c) iv is correct
2. i) The American War of Independence was as much a civil war as a war against the British.
ii) The British forces emerged victorious in York Town.
iii) The nobles in France were supportive of the rising middle class.
iv) The British Parliament repealed the Townshend Act except the tax on paper.
- i & ii are correct
- iii is correct
- iv is correct
- i & iv are correct
Ans : b) iii is correct
3. Assertion (A) : Merchants of Boston boycotted the British goods.
Reason (R) : The British Finance Minister introduced new duties on imports into American colonies.
- A is correct and R is not the explanation of A
- A is incorrect and R is not the explanation of A
- A is correct and R is the explanation of A
- Both ‘A’ and ‘R’ are incorrect
Ans : b) A is incorrect and R is not the explanation of A
4. Assertion (A) : There was a massive peasant revolt in the Vendee against conscriptions.
Reason (R) : The peasants as supporters of the king did not like to fight against him.
- Both A and R are incorrect
- Both A and R are correct
- A is correct and R is incorrect
- A is incorrect and R is correct
Ans: a) Both A and R are incorrect
IV Match the following
|1. John Winthrop||France Finance Minister|
|2. Turgot||July 4|
|3. The Spirit of laws||Britain and France|
|4. Marie Antoinette||Massachusetts Bay|
|5. Seven years war||Louis XVI|
|6. American Independence Day||Montesquieu|
|Ans: 1 – A, 2 – D, 3 – F, 4 – E, 5 – C, 6 – B|
V. Answer the following questions briefly
1. Who were Puritans? Why did they leave England?
- The reformers of England who protested the teachings and practices of Roman Catholic church were known as Puritans.
- The Stuart kings, James I and Charles I, did not tolerate their attempt to reform the Church of England.
- They ordered to persecute the Puritans.
- So, The Puritans left England.
2. What do you know about the Quakers?
- Quakers were members of a Christian group called the Society of Friends.
- They laid emphasis on the Holy Spirit, rejected outward rites and an ordained ministry.
- George Fox was the founder of the society in England.
- Quakers have the reputation of actively working for peace and opposing war.
3. Point out the significance of “the Boston Tea Party”.
- The British Government passed the Townshend Acts in 1767.
- As per the Act, they introduced duties on imports to colonies such as glass, paper, paint, lead and tea.
- Against this, the American colonists obstructed the import of tea in many places.
- In Dec. 1773, a group of men disguised themselves as Native Americans boarded the cargo vessels and threw the tea overboard.
- This incident is hailed as the ‘Boston Tea Party’.
4. Attempt an account of “September Massacres”.
- In August 1791, Austria and Prussia together tried to restore monarchy in France and sent their forces to France
- Immediately, the revolutionary Commune of Paris hoisted Red Flag to signify the enforcement of martial law.
- The revolutionaries suspected and attacked the king and his supporters.
- In three days from Sep. 2nd, about 1500 suspected dissidents were put in prison. After the trial, they were killed.
- This incident is called ‘September massacres’.
5. Explain the composition of “Three Estates of France”.
The three ‘Estates of France’ consisted of
- The clergy class consisted of men and women ordained for religious duties.
- The noble class comprised of lawyers, rich merchants, bankers and businessmen and wealthy landlords.
- The common group consisted of poor peasants, labours, artisans and slaves.
- Cleary occupied a preeminent position in France. They collected tithe from the common
6. Sketch the role of Lafayette in the French Revolution.
- Lafayette was French by birth. He was born in 1757.
- In the American War of Independence, he supported Washington and fought against the British.
- Later, during the French Revolution, he served the French National Guard as its Commander.
- He penned the Declaration of the Rights of man and the Citizen, one of historical documents about human and civil rights with the help of Jefferson.
- In Aug. 1789, the National Assembly of France adopted the Declaratio.
7. What was the background for the storming of Bastille Prison?
- Louis XVI, the Emperor of France summoned the Estate General in May 1789.
- The representatives of the third estate namely the Commons were not allowed to participate in the meeting.
- So, they proclaimed themselves a National Assembly and decided not to disperse until to give them a constitution.
- The king tried to use his force but his own soldiers refused to obey his orders.
- Louis then intrigued to get foreign regiments to shoot down his own people.
- This provoked the people and they stormed the Bastille Prison on 14 July 1789.
8. What were the taxes the peasants had to pay in France on the eve of Revolution?
A type of tax collected by churches which was collected from peasants.
Land tax and also a type of direct and indirect tax which was paid to the state by members of third estate in French Society.
It was levied on items used for daily consumption, such as tobacco, salt, etc.
VI. Answer the questions given under each caption
1. Townshend Act :
a) Who introduced this Act?
Charles Townshend, the British Finance Minister.
b) In which year was this Act passed?
c) Why did the colonists oppose the Act?
- The British introduced duties on Imports to colonies.
- Further, the British officers were empowered to search homes and trading centres for smuggled or illegal goods.
d) Why did the merchants of Boston oppose British goods?
The British, even after a lot of opposition, retained the tax on tea. Their intention was to encourage the business of the East India Company by taking its tea to America and sell it there.
2. Social life in France :
a) What was the tax collected by the Church in France?
b) Who was Danton?
Danton was a great leader of French Revolution.
c) Who were the Encyclopaedists of eighteenth century France?
Diderot and Jean d’Alermbert.
d) Who provided free labour for the construction of public roads?
The peasants & middle class.
VII Answer in detail
1. “Taxation without Representation” led to the outbreak of American War of Independence – Explain.
- The Seven Year War (1756-63) between Britain and France had centred on the control of colonies especially in North America.
- Britain defeated France and took control of Canada. But the war cost the English heavily.
- The British government decided to collect some of the cost of the war from the colonists.
- Series of taxes were imposed on the colonialists. It should be noted that the Americans did not have representation in the British Parliament.
- The Sugar Act of 1764 prohibited the import of foreign rum and imposed duties on wines, silks, coffee and other luxury items. It was protested by the merchants in legislature and town meetings.
- The preamble of the Sugar Act provided the slogan ‘No Taxation without representation’,
- Other taxes such Currency Act, Quartering Act of 1765 and Stamp Act added fuel to the fire.
- Thus, the slogan ‘Taxation without Representation’ led to the out break of American War of Independence.
2. Highlight the contribution of French Philosophers to the Revolution of 1789.
The French Revolution started in the year 1789. The role of French Philosophers such as Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau in the revolution is note worthy.
He was a prolific writer and activist. He was vehement in his criticism of the Church. His most famous work was Candide. His famous quote was: “those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities.
His political theory set the minds of many a fire with new ideas and new resolves. His ideas played an important part in preparing the people of France for the great revolution. He said in his book ‘Social Contract’, ‘Man is born free, but is everywhere in chains”.
He was the author of ‘The Persian Letters’ and ‘The Spirit of the Laws’. He put forward the theory of separation of powers. He said that the liberty of the individual would be best protected only in a government where the powers of its three organs such as legislature, executive and judiciary were separate.
These philosophers and thinkers, opposed to religious intolerance and political and social privileges, succeeded in provoking large numbers of ordinary people to think and act.
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