10th Std Social Science Solution in English | Lesson.10 Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

Lesson.10 Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

 10th Standard Social Science Solution - Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

Lesson.10 Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

I. Choose the Correct Answer:

1. ________ established a full-fledged printing press in 1709, at Tranquebar.

  1. Caldwell
  2. F.W. Ellis
  3. Ziegenbalg
  4. Meenakshisundaram

Ans : Ziegenbalg

2. ________ founded Adi Dravida Mahajana Sabha in 1893.

  1. Rettaimalai Srinivasan
  2. B. R. Ambedkar
  3. Rajaji
  4. M. C. Rajah

Ans : Rettaimalai Srinivasan

3. India’s first organised trade union, the Madras Labour Union was formed in ________.

  1. 1918
  2. 1917
  3. 1916
  4. 1914

Ans : 1918

4. ________ was established by the Justice Party Government for the selection of Government officials.

  1. Staff Selection Board
  2. Public Service Commission
  3. Provincial Staff Recruitment Board
  4. Staff Selection Commission

Ans : Staff Section Board

5. ________ was thefirst elected Legislative Council Member from the depressed class in Madras Province.

  1. M. C. Rajah
  2. Rettaimalai Srinivasan
  3. T.M. Nair
  4. P. Varadarajulu

Ans : M.C.Rajah

II. Fill in the blanks:

1. ________ was the first non- European language that went into print.

Ans : Tamil

2. The College of Fort St. George was founded by ________.

Ans : F.W.Ellis

3. ________ is considered the father of Tamil linguistic purism.

Ans : Maraimalai Adigal

4. ________ was the first to approve participation of women in the electoral politics.

Ans : Justice Party government

5. The name Suriyanarayana Sastri changed in Tamil as ________

Ans : Parithimar Kalignar

6. ________ gave prominence to Tamil music.

Ans : Abraham Pandithar

7. The first Woman Legislator in India was ________.

Ans : Dr. Muthulakshmi

III. Choose the Correct Statement

1. (i) Thirukkural was one of the earliest Tamil literary texts to be published in 1812.

(ii) Maraimalai Adigal collected and edited different palm leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammars and literature.

(iii) Robert Caldwell established the close affinity between the Dravidian languages in contrast with Sanskrit and also established the antiquity of Tamil.

(iv) Thiru.Vi. Kalyanasundaram was an early pioneer in Trade union movement.

  1. (i) and (ii) are correct
  2. (i) and (iii) are correct
  3. (iv) is correct
  4. (ii) and (iii) are correct

Ans : i) and iii) are correct

2. Assertion (A) : The Justice Party continued to remain in government from 1920-1937 in Madras Presidency.

Reason (R) : The Congress Party boycotted the Madras Legislature during this period of Dyarchy.

  1. Both A and R are correct
  2. A is correct, but R is not the correct explanation
  3. Both A and R are wrong
  4. R is correct, but it has no relevance to A

Ans : Both A and R are correct

IV. Match the following:

1. Dravidian Home Maraimalai Adigal
2. Thozhilalan Rettaimalai Srinivasan
3. Tani Tamil Iyakkam Singaravelar
4. Jeeviya Saritha Surukkam Natesanar
Ans: 1 – D, 2 – C, 3 – A, 4 – B

V. Answer the following in brief:

1. Write a note on Tamil Renaissance.

  • The cultural hegemony of colonialism and the rise of humanism brought several changes in the socio-cultural life of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Modern Tamil Nadu too experienced such a historical transition. Tamil language and culture played a significant role in their identity construction.
  • The introduction of printing press, linguistic research on Dravidian languages, etc., underpinned the process of Tamil renaissance.
  • Although religious literature was taken up predominantly for publication in the early years after the advent of printing technology, things began to change gradually.

2. Highlight the contribution of Caldwell for the cause of South Indian languages.

  • In 1816, F.W. Ellis, formulated the theory that the south Indian languages belonged to a separate family which was unrelated to the Indo-Aryan family of languages.
  • Robert Caldwell (1814-1891) expanded this argument in a book titled, “A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of Languages.” m 1856.
  • He established the close affinity between the Dravidian languages in contrast with Sanskrit and also established the antiquity of Tamil.

3. List out the personalities who contributed to the revival of Tamil literature through their writings.

  • C.W. Damotharanar
  • U.V.Swamuinathar
  • Thiru Vi. Kalyanasundaram
  • Parithimar Kalaignar
  • Maraimalai Adigal
  • Subramania Bharati
  • S.Vaiyapuri
  • Bharatidasan.

4. Discuss the importance of Hindu Religious Endowment Act passed by the Justice ministry.

  • Tamil Nadu has a large number of temples and these commanded huge resources.
  • In general, the resources were monopolised and exploited by the dominant caste in the society and led to mismanagement of public resources.
  • The Justice Party introduced the Hindu Religious Endowment (HRE) Act in 1926 and enabled any individual, irrespective of their caste affiliation, to become a member of the temple committee and govern the resources of the religious institutions.

5. Name the newspapers published by the South Indian Liberal Foundation.

  • Dravidian in Tamil
  • Justice in English
  • Andhra Prakasika in Telugu.

6. Estimate Periyar as a feminist

  • He condemned child-marriage and the devadasi system (institution of temple girls).
  • Periyar emphasised on women’s right to divorce and property.
  • Periyar objected to terms like “giving in marriage”. He said the term treats woman as a thing. He wants it substituted by “valkaitunai,”(helpmate)
  • Periyar believed that property rights for women would provide them a social status and protection. He welcomed equal rights for males and females in property, guardianship and adoption.
  • He was a strong champion of birth control and contraception and said that motherhood was a burden to women.

VI. Answer in detail:

1. Attempt an essay on the foundation and development of Tamil Renaissance in the 19th Century.

Tamil Renaissance:

  • The cultural hegemony of colonialism and the rise of humanism brought several changes in the socio-cultural life of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Modern Tamil Nadu too experienced such a historical transition.
  • Tamil language and culture played a significant role in their identity construction.
  • The introduction of printing press, linguistic research on Dravidian languages, etc…underpinned the process of Tamil renaissance.
  • Although religious literature was taken up predominantly for publication in the early years after the advent of printing technology, things began to change gradually.
  • Works that can be described as secular were taken up for publishing.

Advent of the Printing Technology:

  • In the nineteenth century, Tamil scholar’s like C. W. Damotharanar (1832-1901), and U. V. Swaminathar (1855-1942) spent their lifetime in the rediscovery of the Tamil classics.
  • C.W.Damotharanar collected and edited different palm-leaf manuscripts of the Tamil grammar and literature.
  • His editions included such texts as Tolkappiyam, Viracholiyam, Iraiayanar Akapporul, Ilakkanam Vilakkam, Kaliththokai and Culamani.
  • U.V.Swaminathar, took efforts to publish the classical texts such as Civakachinthamani, Paththupattu, Purapporul Venpa Malai, Manimekalai, Ainkurunuru and Pathitrupathu.
  • This provided the Tamil people with a revelation about their heritage.
  • Therefore , the rediscovery of ancient classics and their publication is considered the foundation of Tamil renaissance.
  • The publication of these ancient literary texts created an awareness among the Tamil people about their historical tradition, language, literature and religion.
  • Modern Tamils founded their social and cultural identity on the ancient Tamil classics, collectively called the Sangam literature.
  • Linguists, historians and Tamil scholars recognised the uniqueness of Tamil culture, which had a separate and independent cultural existence before the coming of the Aryans into the Tami Land.
  • Tamil intellectuals of this period identified the fundamental differences between Tamil/Dravidian/Egalitarian and Sanskrit/ Aryan/ Brahmanism.
  • They argued that Tamil was a language of Dravidian people, who are non-Brahmin and their social life was casteless, gender-sensitised and egalitarian.
  • Tamil renaissance contributed to the origin and growth of Dravidian consciousness in the Tamil country.
  • These ideas are exemplified in the Tamil invocation song written by Manonmaniam. P.Sundaranar.
  • C.W.Damotharanar, U.V Swaminathar, Thiru. Vi.Kalyanasundaram, Parithimar Kalaignar, Maraimalai Adigal, Subramanian Bharati, S.Vaiyapuri and the poet Bharatidasan, in their own ways and through their writings contributed to the revival of Tamil literature.
  • Maraimalai Adigal’s pure Tamil Movement, the language reforms of Periyar and Tamil Isai movement helped to galvanise the Tamil language.

2. Describe the background for the formation of the Justice Party and point out its contribution to the cause of social justice.

South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice Party):

  • As World War I was in progress the British government was considering the introduction of representative institutions for Indians after the war.
  • Fearing that such political reforms would further strengthen the political power of Brahmins, educated non-Brahmins decided to organise themselves politically.
  • On 20 November 1916 around 30 prominent non-Brahmin leaders including Dr. C.Natesanar, Sir Pitti Theyagarayar, T.M.Nair and Alamelu Mangai Thayarammal came together to form the South Indian Liberation Federation.
  • Later, the South Indian Liberation Federation came to be called Justice party.

Programmes and Activities:

  • The Justice Party is the fountain head of the non-Brahmin Movement in the country.
  • The Justice Party government widened education and employment opportunities for the majority of the population.
  • The Justicites removed the legal hindrances restricting inter-caste marriages and broke the barriers that prevented Depressed Classes from the use of public wells and tanks.
  • The Justice Party government ordered that public schools accommodate the children of the Depressed Classes.
  • Hostels were established for the students belonging to his social group.
  • Women were permitted to participate in the electoral politics in 1921.
  • The Justice Party worked towards legislating provisions for communal representation reservations for various communities.
  • Two Communal Government Orders were passed to ensure equitable distribution in appointments among various castes and communities.
  • The Justice Party rule established the Staff Selection Board in 1924 for the selection of government officials.
  • In 1929, the Public Service Commission was established.
  • The Justice Party further concentrated on reforms in religious institutions.
  • Tamil Nadu has a large number of temples and these commanded huge resources.
  • The Justice Party introduced the Hindu Religious Endowment (HRE) Act in 1926. It enabled any individual, irrespective of their caste affiliation, to become a member of the temple committee and govern the resources of the religious institutions.

3. Estimate Periyar E.V.R’s decisive contribution to the social transformation of Tamil Nadu.

Periyar E.V.Ramasamy was the founder of the Self-Respect Movement.

Caste based:

  • The Self-Respect Movement introduced a programme of non-Brahmin uplift in Tamilnadu.
  • The Movement criticized Brahminism and the cultural hegemony of the Brahmins.
  • It advocated a casteless society devoid of rituals and differences based on birth.
  • The movement declared rationality and self-respect as the birthright of all human beings.

Through newspapers:

  • Periyar started a number of newspapers like Kudi Arasu, Revolt, Puratch and Viduthalai.
  • He exposed the voices of non-brahmins and minorities through these newspapers.

Education:

  • He stressed on compulsory elementary education to all.
  • He opposed the introduction of Kula Kalvi Thittam.

Anti Hindi stance:

  • Periyar took an anti-Hindi stance.
  • He was against the introduction of Hindi in schools.

Periyar on religion:

  • Periyar opposed superstitions.
  • He advocated intercaste and self respect marriages.
  • He objected to the hereditary priesthoold in temples.
  • He fought for the temple entry of untouchables.

Periyar, a Feminist:

  • He was critical of patriarchy.He condemned child-marriage and the devadasi system.
  • He believed that property rights for women would provide them a social status and protection.
  • He welcomed equal nghts for males and females in property, guardianship and adoption.
  • Periyar’s Self Respect Movement worked for emancipation of women.

 

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