9th Std Social Science Term 1 Solution | Lesson.1 Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period

Lesson.1 Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period

9th Standard Social Science Book Term 1 - Evolution of Humans and Society - Prehistoric Period

Lesson.1 Evolution of Humans and Society – Prehistoric Period

I. Choose the correct answer

1. …………… is generally close to humans.

  1. Gorilla
  2. Chimpanzee
  3. Orangutan
  4. Great Apes

Ans : Chimpanzee

2. The period called …………… marks the beginning of agriculture and animal domestication.

  1. Palaeolithic
  2. Mesolithic
  3. Neolithic
  4. Megalithic

Ans : Neolithic

3. Direct ancestor of modern man was

  1. Homo habilis
  2. Homo erectus
  3. Homo sapiens
  4. Neanderthal man

Ans : Homo sapiens

4. …………… refers to the area covering Egypt, Israel-Palestine and Iraq.

  1. Great Rift Valley
  2. Fertile Crescent
  3. Solo river
  4. Neander Valley.

Ans : Fertile Crescent

5. Sir Robert Bruce Foote, a geologist from England first discovered the …………… tools at Pallavaram near Chennai.

  1. Stone age
  2. Palaeolithic
  3. Mesolithic
  4. Neolithic

Ans : Palaeolithic

6. (i) The period before the introduction of writing is called pre-history.

(ii) The pre-historic people developed language, made beautiful paintings and artefacts.

(iii) The pre-historic societies are treated as literate.

(iv) The pre-historic period is called ancient.

  1. (i) is correct
  2. (i) and (ii) are correct
  3. (i) and (iv) are correct
  4. (ii) and (iii) are correct

Ans : (i) and (ii) are correct

7. (i) The Neolithic people used polished stone axes called Celts.

(ii) Evidence of Neolithic village is found at Payyampalli in Chennai district.

(iii) The cultural period that succeeded the Neolithic is called the Bronze Age.

(iv) The period that witnessed domestication of animals and cultivation of crops is called Mesolithic.

  1. (i) is correct
  2. (i) and (ii) are correct
  3. (i) and (iv) are correct
  4. (ii) and (iii) are correct

Ans : (i) is correct

8. Assertion (A) : Many of the Mesolithic sites are found nearby rivers and tanks.

Reason (R) : Irrigation management developed during Mesolithic period.

  1. A is correct but R is incorrect
  2. A and R are correct and R explains A
  3. A and R both are incorrect
  4. A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A

Ans : A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A

9. Assertion (A): Many of the Mesolithic sites are found nearby rivers and tanks.

Reason (R): Irrigation management developed during Mesolithic period.

  1. A and R are correct and R explains A
  2. A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A
  3. A is correct but R is incorrect
  4.  A and R both are incorrect

Ans :  A and R both are incorrect

10. Assertion (A): The Ashokan inscriptions datable to third century BCE refer to the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras outside his empire in Tamilagam.

Reason (R): Ancient kings of Tamilagam commenced their political rule in the Iron Age.

  1. A and R are correct and R explains A
  2. A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A
  3. A is correct but R is incorrect
  4.  A and R both are incorrect

Ans : A and R are correct but R doesn’t explain A

II. Fill in the blanks

1. _____________ is an object or tool made or modified by humans.

Ans : Artefact

2. The primitive multi – cellular life first appeared in the age of _____________.

Ans : Proterozoic

3. Hand axes and cleavers are the important tool types of the __________ culture.

Ans : Lower Palaeolithic

4. The methods and techniques involved in the production of stone tools are called __________ technology.

Ans : Lithic

5. _____________ is known as the Middle Stone Age, as it is placed between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic.

Ans : Mesolithic Period

III. Find out the correct statement

1. a) The concept ‘survival of the fittest’ contributed to the scientific understanding of human origins.

b) The book on the Origin of Species was published by Herbert Spencer.

c) Darwin’s theory of biological evolution connects with the process of natural selection.

d) Geology is the study of lithic technology.

Ans : b, c

2. a) Among the great Apes Orang-utan is genetically the closest to humans.

b) The ancestors to humans were called Hominins and their origins have been traced to Africa.

c) Flake is a small chip that has flaking on both sides.

d) Acheulian is the main block of stone from which small chips are flaked by using a hammer stone.

Ans : b

IV. Match the following

1. Palaeo anthropology Teris
2. Hand axe tools Venus
3. Images on stone and bones Acheulian
4. Red sand dunes Microliths
5. Stone artefacts of small size The study of the human ancestors.
Ans: 1- E 2 – C, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – D

V. Answer the following briefly

1. Discuss how the age of speculation made humans become conscious and Knowledgeable.

  • The Age of Speculation made humans become conscious and knowledgeable.
  • During that period, people became curious and began to think and ask questions about nature, organisms and the world around them.
  • They also developed their own understanding about various natural forces.

2. Write a note on the impact of pastoralism on the prehistoric people in TamilNadu.

  • The people in the Iron Age practiced agriculture, domesticated cattle and sheep.
  • Irrigation management developed in this period.
  • People settled on the river banks and cultivated millets and rice.

3. List out the features of Megalithic Burial types.

  • The people of Iron Age created burials with large stones for the dead people.
  • Within these burials, the skeletons or a few bones of the dead were placed along with grave goods.
  • The Megalithic burials are classified as dolmens, cists, menhirs, rock cut caves, urn burials and sarcophagus.
  • The burial types of kodakkal (umbrella stone), Toppikkal (hat stone) and Paththikal (hood stone) are found in Kerala.

4. Enumerate the distinctive characteristics of Neanderthals

The people of lower palaeolithic culture were know as Neanderthals. They neither wear stitched clothes nor have warm houses to live in colder climates. Thus, they basic amenities. They buried the dead in a systematic manner and were first human ancestors to mourn on death

5. Domestication of animals is a milestone in Human history. Explain.

  • Rice was probably cultivated in India and China around 7000 BCE or even earlier.
  • Wheat and barley were cultivated at Mehrgarh in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent (Pakistan) before 6000 BCE.
  • Animal domestication developed as part of symbiotic life.
  • Dogs may have been domesticated first. Friendly animals were gradually domesticated. Sheep and goat were domesticated around 10,000 BCE in Southwest Asia.
  • Oxen were used in Sumerian civilization for tilling the land. Mehrgarh in Pakistan has evidence of sheep, goat and cattle domestication in the Neolithic period.

6. Examine the tool making technical skills of lower Palaeolithic people.

  • The lower Palaeolithic people were hunters and food gatherers.
  • They were intelligent enough to select naturally available stone block or pebbles to make their tools.
  • They made various tools such as hand axes and cleavers to meet their subsistence needs.

VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption

1. Hominid and Hominins:

a) Who are Hominids?

All the species of the modern and extinct great apes.

b) Who was the earliest human ancestor to make tools in Africa?

Homo habilies.

c) How are the modern humans known?

Homo sapiens.

d) Name any one species of this tribe.

Homo erectus or Neanderthalensis or Homo habilies.

2. Earliest Lithic Assemblages of Human ancestors:

a) Where are Acheulian tools have been found in Karnataka and in Madhya Pradesh?

Isampur, Karnataka and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.

b) What is Burin?

Burn is a stone-made chisel with a sharp cutting edge.

c) What are Biface tools?

The tools that have flaking on both sides are known as Biface tools.

d) Name a few stone tools used by the human ancestors.

Hand axes, hammer stones, sharp edged flakes and scrapers.

VII. Answer the following in detail

1. The developments in the fields of agriculture, pottery and metal tools are considered a landmark in the life of Megalithic period – Substantiate.

  • The people in the Megalithic Age practiced agriculture and domesticated cattle and sheep.
  • From the stage of food gatherers, they became as food producers. They cultivated millets and rice were cultivated.
  • Potteries were used for cooking, storage and dining purpose.
  • The people used the black and red colours to make black ware and red ware pottery.
  • When the people stored food grains in pots and vessels, they started to think further inventions in their free time.
  • The Megalithic people were experts in iron technology.
  • They made iron tools and used for agriculture, hunting, gathering and in battles.
  • Bronze bowls, vessels, bronze mirrors and bells were also used by the people.
  • These developments changed the life style of the people.

2. The history of humans is closely related to the history of the Earth. Elucidate.

  • The Earth contains geological, archaeological and biological records of historical times in its upper layers.
  • They are all important for the reconstructing the history of the Earth and various living organisms including humans.
  • Archaeologists excavate the soil and rock layers on the Earth and extract evidences about human ancestors.
  • Through the evidences, the Historians attempt to understand the evolution of human history and developments in chronological order.
  • After the formation of Earth, the plants and animals came into being and thereby foundation was lad for the evolution of humans.
  • Humans are the only species on Earth concerned with understand as well as explaining the world and the universe.
  • Thus, the history of humans is closely related to the history of the Earth.

 

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