Lesson.1 New Religious Ideas and Movements
Lesson.1 New Religious Ideas and Movements
I. Choose the correct answer
1. Who of the following composed songs on Krishna putting himself in the place of mother Yashoda?
Ans : Periyazhwar
2. Who preached the Advaita philosophy?
- Adi Shankara
Ans : Adi Shankara
3. Who spread the Bhakthi ideology in northern India and made it a mass movement?
Ans : Ramananda
4. Who made Chishti order popular in India?
- Moinuddin Chishti
- Amir Khusru
- Nizamuddin Auliya
Ans : Moinuddin Chishti
5. Who is considered their first guru by the Sikhs?
- Guru Amir Singh
- Guru Nanak
- Guru Gobind Singh
Ans : Guru Nanak
II. Fill in the Blanks.
1. Periyazhwar was earlier known as ______________.
Ans : Vishnu Chittar
2. ________________ is the holy book of the Sikhs.
Ans : Guru Granth Sahib
3. Meerabai was the disciple of ___________.
Ans : Ravidas
4. _____________ philosophy is known as vishistadvaita.
Ans : Ramanuja
5. Gurudwara Darbar Sahib is situated at _______________ in Pakistan.
Ans : Kartarpur
III. Match the following
|3. Srivaishnavism||Abdul-Wahid Abu Najib|
|4. Granthavali||Guru Gobind Singh|
|Ans : 1 – D, 2 – E, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – C|
IV. Find out the right pair/pairs:
- Andal – Srivilliputhur
- Tukaram – Bengal
- Chaitanyadeva – Maharashtra
- Brahma-sutra – Vallabacharya
- Gurudwaras – Sikhs
Ans : 1 and 5 (Andal – Srivilliputhur & Gurudwaras – Sikhs)
2. Assertion: After Guru Gobind Singh, the holy book Guru Granth Sahib came to be considered the guru.
Reason: Guru Gobind Singh was the compiler of Guru Granth Sahib.
- R is not the correct explanation of A
- R is the correct explanation of A
- A is correct but R is wrong
- Both A and R are wrong
Ans : A is correct but R is wrong
3. Find the odd person out
|Poigai Azhwa||Bhoothathu Azhwa||Periazhwar||Andal||Nammazhwar|
|Ans : Andal|
V. State true or false:
1. Sufism was responsible for the spread of Islamic culture.
Ans : False
2. The best known Sufi sage of the early medieval period was Nizamuddin Auliya of the Chishti order.
Ans : True
3. Guru Nanak is considered the first guru of Sikhs.
Ans : True
4. Sufis believed that realization of God can be achieved only through passionate devotion to God and intense meditation.
Ans : True
5. The basic Tamil Saivite sacred canon consists of 12 books.
Ans : True
VI. Give short answers:
1. What do you know about Tirumurai?
Nambi Andar Nambi (1000 A.D.) is said to have compiled the songs of all of the Nayanmars that form the basis of Tirumurai, the basic Tamil Saivite sacred canon. It consists of 12 books, and 11 of them were assembled by Nambi. The 12″ book is Sekkizhar’s Periyapuranam.
2. How many Nayanmars were there and who were prominent among them?
There are 63 legendary Nayanmars. Among them, Gnanasampandar, Appar, and Sundarar (often called “the trio”) are worshipped as saints through their images in South Indian temples.
3. How did Gurunanak help to found Sikhism?
- Guru Nanak is considered the first guru by the Sikhs.
- The teachings of Guru Nanak formed the basis of Sikhism, a new religious order, founded in the late 15″ century.
- His and his successors’ teachings are collected in the Guru Granth Sahib, which is the holy book of the Sikhs.
4. What had Tukkaram to do with the Vitthoba temple of Pantharpur?
Tukaram, a 17th century saint poet of Maharashtra, is known for his spiritual songs abangas or Kirtanas, devoted to Vitthoba, an avatar of krishna. There is Vitthoba / Panduranga temple at Pantharpur or Pandaripuram in Sholapur district, Maharashtra.
5. Highlight the spiritual ideas of Kabir that appealed to lower classes.
- Kabir believed that God is one and formless, even though different religious sects give him different names and forms.
- Kabir opposed discrimination on the basis of religion, caste and wealth. He also condemned meaningless rituals.
VII. Answer the following in detail:
1. Give an account of the contributions of exponents of Bhakti Movement in the southern as well as northern parts of India.
- The Azhwars, the Vaishnavite Bhakti sages and the originators of Bhakti cult, and the Nayanmars, the worshipers of Siva or the Saivites, composed devotional hymns in Tamil language, dedicated to their respective gods.
- Vishnu-bhakti or Vaishnavism is based on Vishnu’s avatars (incarnations), particularly Krishna and Rama. The 12 Tamil Azhwars are chiefly known for their immortal hymns.
- Two Azhwars stand out distinctly for their contribution to the promotion of the Bhakti movement.
(a) Adi Shankara:
- Adi Shankara or Shankarachariar (c. 700-750 A.D.) preached the Advaita philosophy.
- He set up mathas (mutts), centres of learning and worship, at Badrinath, Puri, Dwarka and Sringeri.
- Hiscommentary on the Brahma-sutra, which is a fundamental text of the Vedanta school and on the principal Upanishads are considered equally important.
New Religious Ideas and Movements
- Ramanuja, a 11th century Vaishnava saint, was the most influential thinker of Vaishnavism.
- He established centres to spread his doctrine of devotion, Srivaishnavism, to God Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi.
Exponents of Bhakti Movement:
- Ramananda spread the Bhakti ideology in northern India where it became a mass movement. Vallabhacharya, a Telugu philosopher, built a temple for Lord Krishna on the Govardhan Hills near Mathura. Surdas, a blind poet and musician, was associated with this temple as well as that of Agra. His famous collection of poetry is called Sursagar. Meera Bai, wife of the crown prince of Mewar, was an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna.
- Meera Bai gained popularity through her bhajans. Chaitanyadeva popularised Krishna worship through ecstatic songs and dancing that had a profound effect on Vaishnavism in Bengal.
- Tulsidas’s Hindi retelling of the story of Rama in the Ramcharitmanas, the sentiment of friendship and loyalty is stressed.
- Tukaram, a 17% century saint poet of Maharashtra, is known for his spiritual songs (abangas or kirtanas), devoted to Vitthoba, an avatar of Krishna.
2. What is Sufism? How did it find its footing in India?
The advent of Sufis to India dates back to the Arab conquest of Sind. It gained prominence during the reign of the Delhi Sultans. Sufism found adherents among both Muslims and Hindus.
- Sufism: The word Sufi takes its origin from suf, meaning wool. The Sufis wore course garments made of wool and hence they were called Sufis. Sufism was basically Islamic but was influenced by Hindu and Buddhist (Mahayana) ideas. It rejected the stringent conduct code of the ulemas. Sufis lived in hermitages akin to monasteries and functioned outside society.
- Sufis in medieval India were divided into three major orders. They were Chisti, Suhrawardi and Firdausi.
- The best known Sufi sage of the early medieval period was Nizamuddin Auliya of the Chishti order, who had a large number of followers among the ruling class in Delhi.
- Suhrawardi order was founded by an Iranian Sufi Abdul-Wahid Abu Najib. The Firdausi order was a branch of Suhrawardi order and its activities were confined to Bihar.
3. What impact did Bhakti movement make on Indian society?
- Vedic Hinduism was regenerated and thus saved from the onslaught of Islam.
- The Islamic tenets – unity of God and universal brotherhood — emphasised by the saints promoted harmony and peace.
- Bhakti was a movement of the common people; it used the language of the common people for its devotional literature.
- Bhakti movement opened up space for Indian languages to grow. It stimulated literary activity in regional languages.
- What sustained Sanskrit, despite its decline during this period, was the support extended by the rulers of Hindu kingdoms.
- Tamil was the only ancient Indian language remained vibrant during this period. Under the influence of devotional cults, its emphasis shifted to religion and religious literature.
- Caste system and social disparities came to be criticised.
சில பயனுள்ள பக்கங்கள்