9th Std Social Science Term 3 Solution | Lesson.2 Industrial Revolution

Lesson.2 Industrial Revolution

9th Standard Social Science Book Term 3 - Industrial Revolution

Lesson.2 Industrial Revolution

I. Choose the correct answer

1. Who established the first steam boat service?

  1. Arkwright
  2. Samuel Crompton
  3. Robert Fulton
  4. James Watt

Ans : c) Robert Fulton

2. Why was Manchester considered ideal for textile production?

  1. Availability of land
  2. Rich human resources
  3. Better living condition
  4. Cool climate

Ans : d) Cool climate

3. Who invented the sewing machine?

  1. Elias Howe
  2. Eli–Whitney
  3. Samuel Crompton
  4. Humphrey Davy

Ans : a) Elias Howe

4. Which family introduced steam engine in France?

  1. de Wendel
  2. de Hindal
  3. de Arman
  4. de Renault

Ans : a) de Wendel

5. Who called Slater, the father of American Industrial Revolution?

  1. F.D. Roosevelt
  2. Andrew Jackson
  3. Winston Churchill
  4. Woodrow Wilson

Ans : b) Andrew Jackson

6. Which of the following is observed to commemorate the Hay Market Massacre?

  1. Independence Day
  2. Farmers Day
  3. Labour Day
  4. Martyrs Day

Ans : c) Labour Day

7. Where was Zollverein Customs Union formed?

  1. England
  2. Germany
  3. France
  4. America

Ans : b) Germany

8. Who produced the first batch of automobiles in France?

  1. Louis Renault
  2. Armand Peugeot
  3. Thomas Alva Edison
  4. Mc Adam

Ans : b) Armand Peugeot

9. What was the invention that removed seeds from cotton?

  1. Rolling Mill
  2. Cotton Gin
  3. Spinning Mule
  4. Spinning Jenny

Ans : b) Cotton Gin

10. Which of the following was used as fuel in olden days to smelt iron?

  1. Coke
  2. Charcoal
  3. Firewood
  4. Paper

Ans : b) Charcoal

II Fill in the blanks

1. ………….. called for voting rights to men in England.

Ans : Chartism

2. ………….. changed the way roads were built around the world.

Ans : Macadamised

3. ………….. discovered a faster and cheaper method of production of steel.

Ans : Henry Bessemer

4. ………….. advocated scientific socialism.

Ans : Karl Marx

5. The first railroad line started in Germany was in the year …………..

Ans : 1835

III Match the following

1. Benz U.S.A
2. Safety Lamp Louis Renault
3. Quadricycle Humphrey Davy
4. Great Railroad Strike Lancashire
5. Coalfield Germany
Ans: 1 – E, 2 – C, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – D

IV. Choose the correct statement

1. i) British mine–owners were faced with the problem of water seeping into their mines.

ii) Employing human labour was cheap for this work.

iii) Newton invented a steam engine to pump water out of mines.

iv) Water had to be removed to get coal in mines.

  1. (i) is correct
  2. (ii) and (iii) are correct
  3. (i) and (iv) are correct
  4. iii) is correct

Ans : c) (i) and (iv) are correct

2. i) Trade Unions were formed by labourers to get their rights.

ii) Germany’s political setup was the most significant challenge for the industrial revolution.

iii) To protect capitalists Karl Marx advocated socialism.

iv) There were no natural resources in Germany.

  1. (i) and (ii) are correct
  2. (ii) and (iii) are correct
  3. (i) and (iv) are correct
  4. iii) is correct

Ans : a) (i) and (ii) are correct

3. Assertion (A) : Workers had rights to get holidays.

Reason (R) : There were laws to protect the workers.

  1. A is correct R is wrong
  2. Both A & R are wrong
  3. Both A and R are correct
  4. A is correct R is not correct explanation of A

Ans : b) Both A & R are wrong

4. Assertion (A) : Slater was called the Father of the American Industrial Revolution.

Reason (R) : His spinning textile mill was duplicated and his techniques became popular.

  1. A is correct and R is the correct explanation of A
  2. A is wrong and R is the correct explanation of A
  3. Both A and R are wrong
  4. Both A and R are correct

Ans : a) A is correct and R is the correct explanation of A

V. Answer all the questions given under each caption

1. Labour Movement :

a) When was the reform bill introduced?

1832.

b) To whom did it grant voting right?

The propertied middle class.

c) Why it was known as chartism?

The frustrated working class prepared a charter of demands and obtained signatures from millions of fellow workers. This charter was presented to the house of commons. England. This charter is known as chartism.

d) What were the demands of the Chartists?

They demanded i) Voting right ii) Annual parliamentary elections iii) Equal representation.

2. Transportation and Communication :

a) Which was the first railway line opened in England?

Railway line From Stockton and Dalington.

b) How were the produced goods transported to markets?

Networks of canals, roads and railroads

c) How was the steamboat invented in the US called?

Clermont.

d) Who sailed from New York to Albany?

Robert Fulton of US.

VI. Answer the following questions briefly

1. What was the condition of labourers’ houses during Industrial Revolution?

  • During the time of Industrial Revolution, the houses were tiny, dirty and sickly for the labouring class.
  • Workers had to time to clean or change their own atmosphere.
  • This environment led to the outbreak of typhoid, cholera and smallpox.

2. Account for urbanisation in England.

  • The Industrial Revolution resulted in the flow of population from villages to industrial towns.
  • Before the Industrial Revolution, 80% of the people lived in rural areas. Slowly, the situation changed. Small towns became large cities.
  • The city of London grew from a population of two million in 1840 to five million in forty years.
  • Like the same, the population of Manchester was only 22,000 in 1771. The population exploded to 180,000 in the next fifty years.

3. Attempt a note on Haymarket Massacre.

  • Labour protest took place on 4 May 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago.
  • People organised a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight hour day resulted in the killing of several workers by the police.
  • To commemorate the Haymarket Affair 1 May 1887 is observed as the Labour Day or May Day or International Worker’s Day.

4. What do you know of Louis Renault?

  • Louis Renault was a French industrialist, one of the founders of Renault and a pioneer of the automobile industry.
  • Renault built one of France’s largest automobile manufacturing concerns, which bears his name to this day.
  • In 1898, Louis Renault built the quadricycle, from which he began to produce in large quantities under his company, the Societe Renault Freres (Company Renault Brothers)

5. Highlight any two important results of Industrial Revolution.

  • Industrial Revolution led to the expansion of trade, the production of finished goods, emergence of factory workers as a new class
  • It led to the rise and growth of cities resulting in rapid urbanisation and organised working class movements.

VII Answer in detail

1. Enumerate the causes for the Second Industrialization in the USA.

Many causes are responsible for the Second Industrialisation in the USA. Among them, a few are given below-

  • The shift from manual labour-based to more technical and machine-based manufacturing industry marked the Industrial Revolution in the United States.
  • Samuel Slater, a citizen of England went New York in 1789. There, he offered his services to Moses Brown, a leading Rhode Island textile industrialist. In 1793, His mill became first water-powered roller spinning textile mill in America. His techniques influenced more and became popular.
  • After the Civil War, industrialisation went on at a frantic pace. In 1869, the first transcontinental railroad was completed to transport people, raw materials an products.
  • There was unprecedented urbanisation and territorial expansion in the US. As a result, between 1860 and 1900, fourteen million immigrants came to the country, providing workers for a variety of industries.
  • The U.S. government supported the industrial growth by providing land for construction of railroads and protected the American industry from foreign competition.
  • The Industrial Revolution quickened the process of the transition of the United States from a rural to an urban society.
  • Young people raised on farms saw greater opportunities in the cities and moved there, as did millions of immigrants from Europe.

2. What were the effects of Industrial Revolution of England on India?

  • The weavers of Bengal suffered at the hands of the Company’s officials and their agents when the British established their foothold in Bengal.
  • The Britishers also insisted on payment of a transit duty for the commodities they carried from one place to another and later for cultivation of commercial crops required for British industries in England.
  • The English deliberately destroyed Indian industry by dumping the Indian markets with their machine-made cheap cotton piece goods.
  • Due to loss of market for hand-woven cotton goods, India lost her old industrial position and became an exporter of raw material.
  • By the first quarter of nineteenth century, the export of Dacca muslin to England stopped. Even the export of raw cotton from India had steadily dwindled owing to the competition from USA and Egypt.
  • Indian weavers were thrown out of employment because of flooding of British factory-made cheap cotton fabrics in Indian markets.
  • Collector of Madurai reported that families of about 5000 weavers did not have the means to take more than one meal of rice a day.
  • Millions died of starvation in famines. To escape starvation deaths, peasants and artisans had to move out of the country opting to work on plantations in the colonies of the British Empire.

 

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