7th Std Social Science Term 2 Solution | Lesson.3 Rise of Marathas and Peshwas

Lesson.3 Rise of Marathas and Peshwas

7th Std Social Science Guide in English | Rise of Marathas and Peshwas

Lesson.3 Rise of Marathas and Peshwas

I. Choose the correct answer

1. Who was the teacher and guardian of Shivaji?

  1. Dadaji Kondadev
  2. Kavi Kalash
  3. Jijabai
  4. Ramdas

Ans : Dadaji Kondadev

2. How was the Prime Minister of Maratha kings known?

  1. Deshmukh
  2. Peshwa
  3. Panditrao
  4. Patil

Ans : Peshwa

3. Name the family priest of Shambhuji who influenced him in his day-to-day administration.

  1. Shahu
  2. Anaji Datta
  3. Dadaji Kondadev
  4. Kavi Kalash

Ans : Kavi Kalash

4. What was the backbone of Shivaji’s army in the beginning?

  1. Artillery
  2. Cavalry
  3. Infantry
  4. Elephantry

Ans : Infantry

5. Who proclaimed wars and freed Malwa and Gujarat from Mughal domination?

  1. Balaji Vishwanath
  2. Bajirao
  3. Balaji Bajirao
  4. Shahu

Ans : Bajirao

II. Fill in the Blanks.

1. The spread of the _______ movement in Maharashtra helped the Maratha people develop consciousness and oneness.

Ans : Bhakti

2. ________ was the key official of revenue administration of Peshwa.

Ans : Kamavisdar

3. The imperial moment of the Marathas sadly ended at ________ in 1761

Ans : Panipat

4. __________ was the foreign minister in the Ashtapradhan

Ans : Sumant/Dubeer

5. Shambuji succeeded Shivaji after a succession tussle with ________

Ans : Anaji Datto

III. Match the following

1. Shaji Bhosle Mother of Shivaji
2. Shambhuji General of Bijapur
3. Shahu Shivaji’s father
4. Jijabai Son of Shivaji
5. Afzal Khan Shivaji’s grandson
 Ans : 1 – C, 2 – D, 3 – E, 4 – A, 5 – B

IV.True or False

1. The rocky and mountainous terrain gave protection to the Marathas from invaders.

Ans : True

2. Hymns composed in Sanskrit by the Bhakti saints were sung by people of all castes and classes.

Ans : False

3. Shivaji captured puranthar from the Mughals.

Ans : True

4. Deshmukhs held sway over rural regions and their control was over between twenty and hundred villages.

Ans : True

5. Abdali invaded ten times before finally marching on Delhi.

Ans : False

V. Consider the following statements. Tick (√) the appropriate answer.

1. Assertion (A) : Soldiers were to live in forts and towns far away from home

Reason (R) : Maratha soldiers were not permitted to retire from battle fields each year for the purpose of cultivating their land.

  1. R is correct explanation of A
  2. R is not the correct explanation of A
  3. A is correct and R is Correct
  4. (A) and (R) are Wrong

Ans : R is not the correct explanation of A

2. Statement I : Judging from the leaders of correspondence and account books, Peshwas were keen on accurate record – keeping.

Statement II : Artillery decided the battle at panipat in 1761

  1. I is correct
  2. II is correct
  3. I and II are correct
  4. I and II are false.

Ans : I and II are correct

3. Find the Odd one out

Shahji, Shivaji, Shambhuji, Shahu, Rahuji, Bhonsle.

Ans : Rahuji

4. Find out the wrong pair

  1. Gaikwad – Baroda
  2. Peshwa – Nagpur
  3. Holkar – Indore
  4. Shinde – Gwalior

Ans : Peshwa – Nagpur

5. Arrange the events in chronological order

  1. Shivaji became totally independent after the death of his guardian Kondadev.
  2. Emperor Shahu died when Balaji Bajirao was Peshwa
  3. Shivaji resumed his military raids after his father’s death and conquered Javali.
  4. Balaji Vishwanath became Peshwa.

Ans :

  1. Shivaji became totally independent after the death of his guardian Kondadev.
  2. Shivaji resumed his military raids after his father’s death and conquered Javali.
  3. Balaji Vishwanath became Peshwa.
  4. Emperor Shahu died when Balaji Bajirao was Peshwa

VI. Answer in one or two sentences

1. The impact of Bhakti movement on Marathas.

The spread of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra helped the Maratha people develop consciousness of their identity and oneness. It promoted a feeling of unity, especially in terms of social equality, among the Marathas.

2. Chauth and Sardeshmukhi

Shivaji claimed suzerainty, but he did not administer them himself. He protected the people from loot and plunder for which they were required to pay Chauth (one- fourth of the revenue as protection money) and Sardeshmukhi (an extra one-tenth, as the chieftain’s due).

3. Role of Kamavisdar in Maratha revenue administration.

The revenue administration of Peshwas was headed by a key official called the Kamavisdar. He was appointed by the Peshwa. He was empowered to maintain a small body of soldiers to police the administrative area, from where tribute or tax had to be collected.

4. Execution of Shambhuji by Mughal Army.

Marathas under Shambhuji were in no position to resist the Mughals. Aurangzeb himself arrived in the Deccan in 1681. Aurangzeb’s main goal was the annexation of Bijapur and Golconda. These two sultanates fell to Aurangzeb by 1687. In little over a year, Shambhuji was captured by the Mughals and, after torture, put to death.

5. Battle of Panipat fought in 1761.

The imperial moment of the Marathas sadly ended at Panipat near Delhi in 1761. The king of the Afghans, Ahmad Shah Abdali, invaded eight times before finally marching onto Delhi. The Marathas were now divided among several commanders, who approached the battle with different tactics. Artillery decided the battle in January 1761. The mobile artillery of the Afghans proved lethal against both Maratha cavalry and infantry.

VII. Answer the following.

1. Examine the essential features of Maratha administration under Shivaji.

Shivaji’s political system consisted of three circles. At the centre was the swaraj. Shivaji was caring and would not allow the people to be harassed in any way.

He protected the people from loot and plunder for which they were required to pay Chauth (one-fourth of the revenue as protection money) and Sardeshmukhi (an extra one-tenth, as the chieftain’s due). In the third circle, Shivaji’s only objective was plunder.

Army

Shivaji gave utmost attention to his army and training of its personnel. In the beginning, the backbone of his army was the infantry. Shivaji took great care in the maintenance and security of his forts.

Ashtapradhan

Shivaji designated eight ministers as the Ashtapradhan, each holding an important portfolio. Peshwa was the equivalent of a modem prime minister in the Maratha Empire. Shivaji was influenced by the Mughal revenue system. The assessments were made on the actual yield, with three-fifths left to the cultivator and two-fifths taken by the government.

 

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